همرگ انجمنی متفاوت

تاریخ: 31/01/1390 ساعت: عدم نمايش بازدید: 100 نویسنده: طاها

P means Persian City and is situated 58 Kilometers from Shiraz. Persepolis was developed mainly by Dariush I The Great (~500 B.C.) and turned to a modern city with running tab water, drainage system, postal service and highways connecting it to other cities of the Persian empire.
(There is another theory saying that Cyrus The Great chose the site of Persepolis, which was originally named Parsa, and the works started in 518 BC by Dariush I.)

If the traveler to Iran visited only the provinces of Khuzestan and Fars, he/she would have seen what is virtually the essential heart of Iranian history. Fars (ancient Parsa) - homeland of the Persians and the source of the name so often given to the entire land -contains not only an enormous number of prehistoric sites with nearly 1,000 identified in the Marv Dasht alone, but the major Achaemenian and Sassanian remains in the country.

There was probably a sizeable settlement on the site of Shiraz in the prehistoric period and cuneiform records from the great ceremonial capital of Persepolis, some 58 km. to the north, show that it was a significant township in Achaemenian times. As a city, however, it was founded in A.D. 684, after the Arab armies conquered the Sassanian provincial capital of Istakhr near Persepolis.

Shiraz-Isfahan Highway approaches Persepolis or Takht-e Jamshid as it is known locally, from the west and turns sharp towards the north at the main staircase and the Gate of All Nations. The mountains behind Persepolis are in the east.

 Persepolis was first scientifically excavated under the direction of Ernst Herzfeld, and later by E.F. Schmidt on behalf of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, from 1931 to 1939. In the 1940s the excavations were continued by the Iranian Archaeological Service, directed first by Andre Godard and later by Ali Sami. More recently, the excavations of the Iranian Archaeological Service have been renewed under the direction of Mr. A. Tajvidi, while, in cooperation with the Iranian authorities. Giuseppe and Ann Britt Tilia of the Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente (ISMEO) have been patiently restoring the damaged structure.

It is perhaps possible that it was Cambyses II, the son of Cyrus the Great, who chose the rock outcrops at the foot of Kuh-e Rahmat as the site of a new dynastic home. According to Professor Pope, the complex of buildings formed a ritual city whose very existence was kept secret from the outside world at a time when the glories of the other, secular, Achaemenian capitals of Susa, Babylon and Ecbatana were well known. But in fact it must be by some strange accident of history that Persepolis - know as Parsa to the Achaemenians - was never mentioned in foreign records, for it was here after all that representatives of all the varied peoples of the empire gathered to pay homage, and bring tribute, to the King of Kings, probably each spring, at the time of the ancient Nowrooz (New Year) festival.

It was Alexander who destroyed the magnificent palaces, not long before the death of the last of the Achaemenians, Dariush III, in 330 B.C.

A complex system of drainage and water channels cut into the foundations of the terrace suggests that the entire layout of the complex was designed in detail before any other construction work was begun.

The palaces on the platform are arranged in four separate levels, each being two meters higher. On entering the platform one stands on the level reserved for the delegations. The Apadana palace and surrounding structures for the nobles are higher. The royal quarter is again a step higher. The storage rooms and administrative offices on the back are the lowest. The royal quarter is visible from all areas and should therefore be used as reference.

The Staircase
Access to the Platform is by a monumental double-ramped ceremonial staircase, carved from massive blocks of stone (five steps are carved from a single block 7m. long), and shallow enough for the most important guests to be able to take their horses up. The stairs were closed at the top with gates whose hinges fitted into sockets in the floor, seen at the top of the northern flight.
The arrival of the delegations was announced by trumpeters who stood at the top of the staircase in front of the Gate of All Nations. Portions of the bronze trumpets are preserved in the Persepolis Museum. The Persian and Median ushers received the delegations, led them through the Gate of All Nations to the Hundred Column Palace to the presence of the king.

The Gate of All Nations
At the head of staircase is the Gateway of All Nations, built by Xerxes I and guarded at east and west by vast bull-like colossi closely akin to the bull figures of Assyria. Above the bulls, on the inner side of the Gateway is a three-language cuneiform inscription in the main languages of the realm: Persian, Babylonian and Elamite. It says:

Great God is Ahuramazda, who has created this Earth, who has created the heaven, who has created man, who has created good things for man, who has made Xerxes King, sole King of many, sole Commander of many. I am Xerxes, Great King, King of Kings, King of lands, King of many races, King of this earth reaching even far off, son of Dariush the King, the Achaemenian. King Xerxes says: By the grace of Ahuramazda I constructed this Gateway of All Nations. Many other beautiful things were constructed in Persia. I constructed them and my father constructed them. Everything we have constructed which looks beautiful we have constructed by the grace of Ahuramazda. King Xerxes says: May Ahuramazda protect me and my kingdom and whatever is constructed by me as well as what has been constructed by may father. 

Within the entrance hall which was originally roofed, well-polished black marble benches line the walls.

The roof was supported by four columns. The capitals are stylized representations of pendants of date palm leaves and represent therefore the trunks of holy palms. Everybody Participating in the festivities entered through this gate. The nobles left through the southern doorway facing the Apadana palace, the delegations through the eastern gate which faces the mountain- The winged man-bull figures are only along the path of the Subject Nations.

The narrow roadway connects the Gate of All Nations to a similar palace with four columns which probably was used as a waiting hall for the delegations before they entered the Hundred Column Palace. This roadway was walled off with a high double retaining wall of mud-brick, which obstructed any view of the Apadana and the private palaces. Only the lower remnants of this wall are preserved. If one can imagine these walls to reach the level of the head of the man-bull figure, then the massiveness and power of the structure of the Gate of All Nations will become more apparent, heightened by a narrow enclosure. Guard rooms and storage areas were on both sides of the road.

A recess to the left contains two partially restored griffin capitals. These were never put on top of columns and remained in situ for unknown reasons, possibly intended for buildings yet unfinished when Alexander attacked. In a pit towards the mountain, in front of the wail separating the Apadana from the Hundred Column Palace court, rests a magnificent lion capital. Nobody knows how it got there and why it is below ground level.

The function of this capital was to cradle the main roof beam. The columns were probably raised with the help of earth ramps, up which the stones were pulled to the desired height and positioned. More earth was added and the ramp heightened, until the capital could be positioned on top of the column. The earth was then dug away. The roof was then carried by the capitals in a fashion as illustrated on the royal tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam or behind Persepolis. A wooden replica has been constructed in the portico of the Persepolis Museum.

A heavy cedarwood crossbeam was laid across the saddle between the two heads, protruding about 1 m. on each side. Two long beams were laid on each side, connecting two neighboring columns. The inter-space was covered with secondary wood beams, finally matting and a thick layer of earth was rolled over this construction, to form the mud roof. Lateral stabilizers fitted between the lion's ears. Everything was brightly painted.

When Alexander burned Persepolis the Apadana roof fell eastwards, covering and preserving the eastern reliefs for 2100 years.

Dariush the Great's Hall of Audience (Apadana)
Persian and Median nobles attending the ceremonies may have been able to leave the Gateway of All Nations by its third, southern exit, opposite the most fascinating of all the palaces of Persepolis, Dariush the Great's Hall of Audience, or Apadana. Built on a stone terrace, it was completed by Xerxes during the early years of his reign. Two inscribed tablets in gold and silver that were found in stone boxes in the corners of the northern wall of the Apadana mark the foundation of the building by Dariush. Both are in the Tehran Museum.

Crossing the open area before the palace, the nobles would have mounted the double staircase in the middle of the northern wall, which like the better-preserved eastern wall, is covered with bas-reliefs showing in almost photographic detail the appearance of the nobles, foreign dignitaries and tributary nations in their long processions to the court of the great king.

The figures are duplicated, the northern and eastern walls each portraying the right or left side views of the same human beings and animals. Studying these and other realistic bas-reliefs at Persepolis one can well visualize the colorful and impressive scene at the twice-yearly festivals when representatives of the subject nations ranging from the Greek islands to India, and from central Asia to Ethiopia, brought their gifts, the latter including exotic creatures such as giraffes from Abyssinia, two-humped camels from Bactria in Afghanistan, and lion cubs from Elam together with golden ornaments, weapons, fine horses and still other tokens of homage.

The procession of the nobility would have entered the columned porch at the top of the stairs and then wound through the great hall, which is similar in design to the Apadana at Susa and large enough to accommodate some 10,000 people according to Herzfeld. They would have left through the eastern portico and gone down the second double winged staircase to turn right to the Tripylon or Central palace. From this they would have entered the adjoining Hall of One Hundred Columns from its southern side, and thus would face the visiting dignitaries as they entered at the opposite end of the Hall.

The original magnificence of these buildings can hardly be imagined even from the impressive portions still standing, for the great wooden doors were covered by delicately patterned gold plates; heavy curtains of gold lace kept out the droughts; glazed and terracotta tiles in blue, yellow and pink, portraying lions, bulls and plants, together with paintings on plaster, decorated the upper walls. Traces of color have also been found on some column bases and stone walls and on the bas-reliefs of the staircases - the inside of the throat of a fallen lion capital near the eastern portico of the Apadana still shows distinct red coloring.

The southern doors lead to Dariush the Great's private palace, the supposed banqueting hall, and behind this the palace of the crown prince, Xerxes.

Of the original fluted and tapered 36 columns of the Apadana, only thirteen remain upright today, and of these most have lost their double bull protomes. The slender columns are nearly 20 m. tall. Another 36 columns on round bases supported the three porticos on east, west and north. The ceiling beams of cedar, ebony and teak were gold-plated, inlaid with ivory and precious metals.

The Apadana Staircase
It is well worthwhile to spend all available time studying the Eastern staircase of the Apadana. Better preserved, the reliefs are full of religious symbolism as well as being a record in stone of the New Year's procession. The staircase is best divided into three portions, a central, a northern and a southern panel. The northern panel shows the reception of the Persians and Medes, the more interesting southern panel the reception of the subject nations. Recent restoration of the palace showed that the original plan and layout was of much more primitive type, the monumental double staircase being added later. It is still undecided if the Apadana was not built over an older cyclopean platform of the type erected by the early Achaemenian kings in Masjid-e Solaiman. Originally, the Private Reception Hall and its staircase would have dominated the court. Now they are squeezed in by the Apadana staircase.

Starting at the northern end of the center staircase, (the right corner of the central staircase facing the Apadana) and moving to the north towards the end of the lateral staircase, to observe the New Year's reception as it occurred.

The parade was led off by the imperial guards, which are represented in all three tiers. These are the Immortals, whose number was never permitted to fall below the appointed 10,000. Any losses were immediately replaced. The soldiers wear no helmets and are equipped with quivers and spears, which are weighted with a pummel to act as balance when thrown, resting on the feet of the soldiers. They are followed in the upper tier by the royal procession, in the lower two by the Persian (feather headdress) and Median (round caps) nobles.

The upper tier depicts the personal valets of the king, each carrier preceded by an appointed Median official. The royal whisk is brought, the horseblankets and the royal footstool, which is carried with the aid of a leather ribbon buttoned over the shoulder of the valet. The stool itself consists of a reed matting strung over a frame of intricately carved wood with animal hooves as legs. This footstool was carried in the procession, since the king was not supposed to touch ground. The stone of the relief was damaged and the feet of the stool carrier show repair by an insertion fastened with iron clamps.

Next comes the Median chief of the stables, leading the procession of royal horses. The officials of the court are recognized by their staffs, the length of the staff indicating the rank. the horses are very beautifully carved, each one led by a groom. The tails and manes are artfully tied, the horse-bits of metal precisely worked. Similar bronze bits can be seen in the Persepolis museum, indicating the precision of the stone carving.

The group ends with the Elamite chief of chariots, followed by a war - and a ceremonial -chariot. The chariots were only valuable in warfare or hunts in the plain and desert. Therefore the Elamites are in charge. The horses pulling the chariots are smaller, lighter and of a different breed than the Median warhorses preceding them. The chariots have wheels with 12 spokes, indicating the 12 months of the year. The wheel is fastened with an artfully carved pin in the shape of a figure. (Some authors describe it as fertility goddess with ample breasts. Due to the damage by time and climate, it can't be confirmed.) The first chariot differs from the second by the frieze of lions along the edge of the carriage, indicating that it was a hunt or war chariot. The handle helped the warrior to steady himself when throwing the spear, the leather loop was used to facilitate the boarding and jumping off process during fast motion. The wheels are ribbed to steady the chariot.

The lower two tiers show the nobles, Persians and Medes regularly alternating. The Persians' have fluted caps, the Medes have round fur caps with a tail still attached to the pelt. Some carry dispatch or bow cases, others pomegranate buds and flowers. There are subtle differences in the clothing, buttons and earrings, which may signify difference in office or rank. The nobles are relaxed, happy, chatting and not at all ceremonial. They are equals (as indicated by the equal level of heads) and allied in an inseparable bond as indicated by their holding of hands and meet the king, who is one of their race. The rows of soldiers are there to remind them that some have rebelled and supported the wrong pretender to the throne - Bardia. Dariush had to bring 9 rebellious satraps to heel before he could secure his kingship. His immortals were victorious. The civil war however Is a thing of the past, the king's position is clear, the crown prince is designated, so the nobles can relax. Dariush is obviously the most able of his tribe, worthy of kingship.

Fertility symbols are everywhere in evidence. The entire crest of the staircase is adorned with ziggurat symbols. The rows are divided by the 12-petaled flowers, a symbol of sun and spring. The triangles are filled with trees of life full of seed and with palm trunks (some say papyrus). The pomegranate carried by the nobles in the procession is an old bisexual fertility symbol, since the bud resembles the penis of a child, the flower is used as a sign of female fertility and the fruit is round and full of seed.

The stairs themselves are guarded by Persian soldiers, with fluted or feathered caps and the usual weapons.

The Central Panel
The central panel is of religious significance in that it shows Ahuramazda above all: A ring with wings symbolizing god, guarded by two griffins with human heads. Ahuramazda is usually shown as a man with crow's feet and eagle's wings. Lateral to it is again the stylized palm grove. Below Ahura Mazda are four guard soldiers, Persians and Medes. The Persians carry the typical circular indented shield. It is obvious that the shield is held in the left hand, the spear in the right.

The lateral triangles show the New Year's symbol- the lion devouring the bull. This might be interpreted as the vigorous incoming new year replacing the old. However it has great mythological, astrological and practical importance. In 550 BC the astronomers of Persepolis could still see the constellation of Leo at the zenith, while Taurus (the pleiades regulus and canopus) was visible only a few degrees above the southern horizon, completely disappearing in the following days, to reappear only forty days later. This striking constellation occurred only once a year: The triumphant lion in the zenith with the bull escaping below the horizon marked the beginning of the agricultural activity after the winter.

The inscription in the panels informs us that Dariush started this palace and Xerxes completed it and asks god to protect the land from famine, falsehood and earthquakes.

The Southern Panel
Twenty-three delegations from all lands arrive with their New Year's presents for the king, alternatingly ushered in by Persian and Median guides. The sequence of their arrival is not clear, except that the first delegation, Medes, lead the procession at the central staircase, while the Ethiopians are the last under the lateral balustrade. They either follow a sequence indicated by the horizontal rows separated by solar rosettes, or the vertical rows separated by trees of life. They might possibly be lined up in a snake line. Certainly they are not received in a random fashion, which would offend the whole concept of worldly and celestial order. Nothing, after all, in Persepolis is left unplanned.

None of the possible arrangements is in agreement with the sequential list of satrapies on the king's inscriptions. The delegations may therefore be received in order of their incorporation into the empire, or in accordance with travel time necessary from their homeland to Persepolis, which is not necessarily related to distance alone. The arrangement of Assyrians. Lydians, Ionians, Babylonians, Egyptians and Ethiopians excludes any arrangement in sequence of military conquest. The delegations arrive in order of travel stages, in the sequence outlined by numbers in the attached. Herodotus confirms this assumption when he writes:

"or nations they honor most their nearest neighbors, whom they esteem next to themselves. Those who live beyond these they honor in the second degree, and so with the remainder; the further they are removed, the less the esteem in which they hold them. The reason is, that they look upon themselves as greatly superior in all respects to the rest of mankind, regarding others as approaching to excellence in proportion as they dwell nearer to them; whence it comes to pass that those who are the furthest off must be the most degraded of mankind." ...
He continues in saying:
"And this is the order which the Persians also follow in their distribution of honor."
Although Herodotus' text is full of inaccurate hearsay, it has been found very accurate in descriptions of habits and manners which he himself had opportunity to observe during his travels. He concludes his description of the habits of the Persians by stating:

"Thus much I can declare of the Persians with entire certainty, from my actual knowledge."
The donations brought by the delegations cannot be construed as taxes, since precise tax lists for the different provinces exist, listing entirely different items. They present the habit of bringing New Year's presents to the king to honor him, similarly as,we give presents for birthdays or at Christmas. It would not be conceivable that the Elamites pay their yearly taxes in lions. Horses, honor robes, artfully carved vessels, lions and many other things are however well suited as presents for a king. These gifts could possibly also be related to the presents brought to the Elamite ziggurat on the New Year's day in the ritual procession, asking god for favor and fertility in the year to come.

Some sections of this panel are artistically more advanced than others while some are not polished or even completed. The details of dress and the characterization of animals is unusually excellent. Artistically one of the best is panel 8, the Cilicians with the two fat-tailed rams.

This is a list of the 23 delegations and nations, carved on the Southern Panel of the Apadana Palace.

(16) Parthians
(13) Egyptians
(10) Aryans
(7) Arachosians
(4) Elamites
(2) Medes
(17) Gandharians
(14) Scyths
(11) Cilicians
(8) Babylonians
(5) Armenians
(18) Bactrians
(15) Lydians
(12) Cappadocians
(9) Assyrians



The largest delegation. Friendship rings and armlets, which might serve as ingots, are offered. These must be other than "Imperial Medes" who joined Cyrus to form the empire. They might have remained loyal to Astyages, when the majority of his troops defected and joined Cyrus. This would still give them honor, but put them in a class of tribute bearers.

Elamites (Susians):
Controlled by Persia at the foundation of empire. Teachers of the Persians, their language, was used for records and inscriptions. Their capital in Susa was one of the three permanent administrative and cultural centers of the empire. They bring lions and bows and arrows used by the king during his New Years prayer as depicted on the Royal Tombs. Persians adopted Elamite dress. (The Asiatic lion is now practically extinct except for several closely guarded areas in India. The last lion was found dead by geologist McQuillan close to the city of Behbahan in Fars in 1962.)

From Lakes Van, Urumiyeh, the southern Caucasian slopes. Related to the Urartians, master builders, teachers of the Medes, conquered by the Assyrian under Assurbanipal during his trek to Mount Ararat, the center of the region.

Their headdress is that of (7), so that the two delegations are hard to tell apart. The pantaloons are still worn in the region between Parthia (13), Aria (7) and Arachosia (modern Baluchistan). At Alexander's conquest the area was much more fertile. Mongols destroyed the irrigation.

Were conquered much later than either the Assyrians or Lydians. They bring a Brahma bull, cups, and a cloth of the type used as canopy over the throne of Darius as represented in the throne room scenes in the Private Reception Palace, the Hundred Column Palace and the Treasury.

Assyrians and Phoenicians:
Some believe these arc Lydians because of their similarity to (12). The lock behind their ear is still worn by orthodox Jews. The superb jewelry, vases are delight of photographers. Horses are much smaller than those from the highlands of Media: (3), (9) and (11).

Practically indistinguishable from the Arachosians (4). The last member bringing a lion skin over his back is incomplete. Aria was north of Arachosia, in the area of the city of Herat and Mashhad and on the mountain slopes of the northern rim of the Great Desert.

Cilicians, (Sogdians):
From southern Asia Minor, opposite Cyprus, bring two beautifully worked cups. The workmanship is superb and warrants detailed study.

Are members of the Median (1), Armenian (3) and Sagartian (16) groups and bring a horse and robes. Characteristic is the pin which holds the robe over the shoulder.

Only the hemline remains, the body was destroyed by the fall of the Apadana roof during the gutting by Alexander. The dress is however so characteristic that all authors agree on their origin.

Mede guide. The pointed hats confirm Herodotus' description of the pointed-hat Scyths. They come from the steppe north of the Caucasus, the Ukraine and north of Sogdiana and consisted of numerous subtribes. They defeated Dariush.

Lydians and lonians:
Without hats, bring bolts of cloth, balls of yarn (or honey combs?) and cups of precious material, probably dyes. The Greeks cities and Lydia were administratively united with the capital in Sardis. Their dress is similar to (6).

Come from the steppe between the Caspian and the Aral Lake, which constitutes the present Turkmenistan. After the collapse of the Achaemenian empire they conquered all of Iran from Alexander's successors and governed for 440 years.

They come from the area of the headwaters of the Indus river, between Kabul and Lahore, the western Punjab. Its old capital Taxila near Rawalpindi can be visited. They wear a hair-band as do their neighbors (15), (21) and (18).

Come from the Oasis country along the upper reaches of the Oxus river and in northern Afghanistan. They bring vases of the same type as their northwestern neighbors Parthians. Their chief city was Balkh.

Dress similar to (1), (3), (9) and bring similar gifts. Assume that they belong to the same general group and are the last to arrive because they live furthest away. Asia Minor opposite the Thracians, or somewhere along the Caucasus border or the Black Sea or, the central steppe next to the Bactrians.

The eastern most group of Scyths and come from the region between the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers, the site of the city of Samarkand. Some believe they are Chora smians.

These people come from a hot damp climate. They wear only a loincloth and sandals. They bring an ass, hatchets and wickerbaskets on a balancing rod. Sind is in the lower Indus valley.

They come from the land between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, which now forms Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria. They wear a Scythian cap which is pointed. Its form persisted to modern times and the Red Army of the time of the Russian Revolution until the Second World War used similar caps.

They wear sandals, a simple tunic with embroidered border and bring a dromedary and cloth of the type they themselves wear as presents. Administratively they belonged to Assyria-Phoenicia, but their travel time from the Hedjas at the Red Sea puts them close to the end of the procession.

Drangianians (Zranka):
Hardly any authors agree to the origin and homeland of this delegation. Some trace it to the region of Merv in Bactria, others to the province of Kerman in eastern Iran. The hair of the carriers is combed in Gandharan style (Delegation 14), they bring similar shields and spears and a bull, if of different breed. Their position at the end of the procession suggests an origin close to the borders of Achaemenian Iran. As suggested by Darius the Great: "Says Darius the King: This is the land I own, from the Scyths beyond the Sogdians to the Ethiopians, from Sind to Sardis (Lydia), which Ahuramazda the greatest of Gods has given to me." It is believed they come from the east of the empire, close to Gandhara and Sind.

Somalis or libyans, People from punt (Putaya):
There is great controversy as to the origin of this delegation. The members of the delegation wear animal skins and bring an African antelope (kudu) and a chariot. They are not negroid. Some authors believe that the chariot puts the delegation into Libya, since the Libyans were known for their excellence as charioteers. The antelope however and the animal-skin dress suggests an origin in Yemen or Somali land, the Egyptian Punt.

Ethiopians or Nubians, (Kushiyans):
The negroid people come the greatest distance and are the last delegation to be received. They bring a giraffe or an okapi, elephant tusks and a vase and are ushered by a Median guide.



Tachara, Palace of Dariush
The Tachara (meaning 'winter palace') of Darius-it is so called in the trilingual inscription on its southern door jambs-is on a platform about 2m. higher than the Apadana immediately to its north. This alone of all the other palaces on the platform has windows facing south from a portico with two rows of pillars. The original entrance to this small palace was by the two flights of steps on the south side. The palace was completed by Xerxes and a western staircases was added by Artaxerxes III, both staircases being ornamented with more bas-reliefs of tributaries and offerings.

The contention of the later addition of the staircase is supported by the fact that a door was added on the frontside of the Tachara, which produces asymmetry of the hall of the palace. Also an unusual group of people is depicted on the central panel, Medians, Cilicians, Sogdians and another group which is too weathered for clear identification. All wear extremely fancy dress, distinctive from the wear on the Apadana staircase. This may be a change in fashion over a period of 200 years which is the difference between the carvings, or simply be a special ceremonial dress of these people who probably were Mithra worshipers and included in the regular cult for political reasons. The rest of the central panel shows the conventional New Year's symbols.

Arachosians and Medes ascend the stairs with animals, covered bowls and skins with water or wine. The holiest shrines of the Zoroastrian Magi were in Lake Urumiyeh in Media and Lake Helmand in Arachosia and the servants seen on the staircases of the entire upper level arc really temple officials bringing the necessary implements for sacrifice and ceremony.

Entering the palace one passes a door with royal guards and comes into a small guard room. The next door leads into the main hall of the palace, with an image of the king preventing "evil" from entering. The different doors show different representations of the same theme, which arc repeated in the Hundred Column Palace and the Museum. The "evil" is either shown as a bull-monster being killed by the king, or a composite figure of a winged bull-lion-raven-scorpion. The position of the king and beast are of significance and indicate the use of the rooms. It can also be argued that the "monsters" with which the king contends are really constellations and relate astrologically to dates on which the rooms were used. The door of the royal bath, to the left, shows the king coming cleaned and properly dressed for the ceremony, followed by two servants, one a eunuch with umbrella and flywhisk. The holes of the King's coat indicate the anchor points of precious metal objects. The king undoubtedly wore a crown, armlets and anklets. The beard was inlaid with precious or semi-precious stones; so were the eyes. The pattern of the cloth is still recognizable and should be compared with the colored tile on the museum wall. Flower motives are apparent. The lower seam of the coat shows a frieze of lions. The scratchmarks were only lightly put on, as trace, to facilitate the application of paint, or to aid the adhesion of gold foil.

Passing this door one can enter the bath. The covered water canal runs through its middle and empties towards the Apadana. There are remnants of the red cement floor which covered the bath originally. At the gate to the bath chamber stands a beardless youth, most likely a eunuch, with a bottle of oil and a towel. (This is the only image of anybody without beard in Persepolis. There are no women represented.)

There are two small rooms on either side of the Tachara, guarded by the king, who prevents a monster, of composite parts of "evil" animals including a scorpion tail, from entering. These rooms were possibly used for the ritual cohabitation, a yearly duty of the Mesopotamian kings to assure fertility. Whatever the ceremony was which this room was used for, it served the resurgence of the bull zodiac above the horizon 40 days after the New Year. The door lintel shows the king with his dagger drawn, in his arms a limpid lion, lifted off the ground (and the bull) permitting the bull to rise and the year to continue.

On the highest (royal) level there is a secluded court, surrounded by the palaces of the different kings. The portico of the Tachara palace opens onto this court. Both sides of the portico are flanked by high corner stones with trilingual inscriptions. A curious feature is the inscription on the windows of the Tachara, which reads: "Stone window frame, made in the house of Darius the King."

Xerxes' Private Palace (Hadish)
An unfinished palace of Artaxerxes III lies across this courtyard to the south, and to the east of this, on the highest part of the platform and, like all the palaces, standing on its own terrace, is the main hall of the Hadish (literally, 'a Dwelling place'), Xerxes' Private Palace which can be reached by a staircase from the courtyard.

The central hall of the Hadish with its 36 columns, is surrounded by small chambers on the cast and west, and has five doorways whose portals depict Xerxes entering or leaving the palace, accompanied by attendants. Not all the columns in the palaces were of stone; where it was possible to find tree trunks tall and strong enough, columns were made of these, standing on stone bases. The trunks themselves would be covered with painted plaster or gold leaf. These, together with the sunbaked mud-brick walls, roof beams and their mud-straw covering, have all disappeared with time, leaving only the stone elements of the construction. South of the Hadish is a series of smaller, columned apartments of sun-dried brick which have been described as the Queen's apartments, but which were more likely to have been warehouses and stores for the Treasury. There are two unexcavated mounds, one east of the Hadish and the other east of the Tachara, both of which await full explanation.

Xerxes' Hall of Audience (Taipylon or Central Palace)
North of the Hadish is the Taipylon, the small Central Palace with its three entrances. The bas-reliefs on the main double staircase on the north depict Persian and Median guards with, on the inner surfaces, still other attractive reliefs of Median courtiers and nobles on their way to a banquet. There was another staircase on the south side of the palace, now moved to the Tehran Museum. On the portal of the eastern doorway Darius is shown on his throne, supported by representatives of 28 countries.

Behind him stands the crown prince. Xerxes, his head at the same level with his father, far above the surroundings. Both are beneath a canopy adorned with the symbol of god, bulls and lions running in two tiers in opposite directions and many tassels. Both the king and the crown prince hold fertility symbols (palmette) in their hands. The subject nations supporting the throne can be well studied. (The wisdom of Darius to select a successor during his life time was not followed by later kings). Xerxes had many wives and did not select the most able successor. The conditions of harem life with its social pressures increased the influence of intriguers and the eunuchs, especially - since they had the best access to the future kings and their mothers. Fratricide, murder and exile created great confusion. At the time of Alexander's conquest no direct descendants of Darius in the main line remained.

This palace is in the center of Persepolis. It permitted the king to meet his nobles, unnoticed from the outside. Here all major political decisions were made by a small group. The royal messengers and controllers were received, victorious generals honored. The political decisions for the next year were made by the select few. The crown prince has to be a witness to this, to preserve and guarantee continuity in case of the king's death. (The crown prince is represented only once more in Persepolis - in the Treasury scene where the king receives the financial report. He is not shown on any ceremonial functions, as for instance in the same scene at the Hundred Column Palace.

Nobles entered here from the Apadana courtyard over the staircase, one side Medes, the other Persians. Again they walk side by side, chatting, holding hands, smelling flowers. The heads arc always at the same level indicating equal social stature. Two Persian masters of ceremony relaxed but stern, with their long staffs of office, wait for the procession to begin at the foot of the stairs. The front panel of the staircase shows again the usual New Year's symbols, the lion and the bull.

The fact that both Xerxes' Hall of Audience and his Private Palace suffered heavily in the final fire has led some authorities to believe that Alexander started the conflagration in revenge for Xerxes' destruction of the Acropolis in Athens. Further excavation works revealed a palace of Artaxerxes III constructed on top of another of Artaxerxes I in the southern corner of the platform, practically completely destroyed by fire.

Hundred Column Palace
Largest of all the palaces - 70x70 m - is the Hall of One Hundred Columns, to the north-east of the Tripylon, covered with some 3 m. of soil and cedar ash when it was first Partly excavated by Motamed-al Dowleh Farhad Mirza, Governor-general of Fars, in 1878. Iranian archaeologists completed the excavation in 1940. Here only the column bases remain, badly scorched and damaged by the fire.

The Hundred Column Palace was used for the reception of the Subject Nations and the collection of their tribute.

The delegations waited in the small 4-column palace opposite the main court. They entered the Hundred Column Palace from the north between two large bull figures carrying the portico. The gate shows rows upon rows of soldiers, indicating the military might of the king, which protects them from enemies and guarantees their peace, as well as controls their spirit of independence. The king is carried upon the power of the army. He sits surrounded by incense burners, accompanied by his successor and receives the report of the chief of the treasury, a Mede.

The gifts were received by the king, appreciated, the delegations admonished or lauded. Petitions, handed in before the reception, were answered. Before the next delegation arrived, the gifts were removed through the southern gate to the stores of the Treasury.

The southern gate was never seen by the delegations and shows an entirely different relief. Here the king is supported by the subject nations. This conveys the message lo the court officials, that whatever is carried through this gate is the tax extracted from these subject nations, whose strength has to be preserved to support the monarchy.

The delegations returned the way they came or registered at a building at the edge of the platform and the mountain in the extreme north-east.

The royal archives of 3500 cuneiform clay tablets, including pay lists, were found in the vicinity.

The Museum
The Museum is reached through the southern gate of the Hundred Column Palace. It is not clear what the original structure was. The elaborate door carvings showing the king fighting "evil" suggest that it was of great importance, either as main administrative office or as the palace of the Queen - who would therefore be on the same low level as all the other "treasures"of the king. The size of the building, compared to the size of the "Harem", suggests that the female retinue probably lived outside in the tent camp and that this indeed was an administrative structure.

The main room of the Museum contains the Achaemenian artifacts from Persepolis. A stone foundation tablet is the central display. There are singed remnants of cloth, parts of cedar wood, golden nails from the doors, beads, alabaster trays and vessels and many other noteworthy artifacts. One display shows the bronze trumpets. Comparing the actual lance and arrowtips as well as the horsebits and bridles with their counterparts in the stone carvings and one will notice the amazing accuracy of the masons' work. Underneath the right window in the posterior wall is a delicately etched figure of a Sassanian king on his horse. The entire picture is about 20 cm. by l 5 cm. Artful mortars of great variety are evident, used for the preparation of Haoma but nothing one would find in a place that was really "lived in".

The room to the right contains artifacts of prehistoric times from a tepe (mound) near Persepolis; the room at the left, Sassanian and early Islamic pottery and artifacts from nearby Istakhr.

The Treasury
East of the Museum, at the foot of the mountain face, is a self-contained complex of halls covering over 10,000 square m., including two large halls whose roofs were supported respectively by 100 and 99 wooden columns, and which is believed to have been the Treasury begun by Dariush. Stone and clay tablets in Akkadian and Elamites found here give details of exact wages in cash and in kind, paid to the men who built Persepolis, proving that this gigantic undertaking was constructed by free, paid labour, in contrast to contemporary monumental buildings in other countries where slave labour was the rule. According to Plutarch, Alexander the Great required 10,000 mules and 5,000 camels to carry the treasures of Persepolis to Ecbatana.

The better preserved of two identical bas-reliefs found on the east and south porches of the Treasury is now in the Tehran Museum and shows Dariush on his throne with Xerxes and Persian nobles and attendants standing behind, and a Median official, probably the Chiliarch, the head of the Treasury who was also the Commander of the Army, standing with one hand raised to his mouth in a gesture of respect. Two elaborate incense burners stand between the official and the king.

Between the Hundred Column Palace and the mountains are buildings of sun-baked bricks forming the royal stables, guard room and domestic quarters- probably some 3,000 soldiers were garrisoned in Persepolis. Further north a 32-columned building with a columned porch faces the courtyard of the Treasury; other buildings in the extreme north-eastern corner included the royal chancellery and accounts offices where 30,000 tablets in Elamite were found.

Excavations and restoration still continue on this extraordinary site.

Tombs of Artaxerxes II, III and Dariush III
On the slopes of Kuh-e Rahmat from the south-eastern corner of the Treasury, passing the remains of guard houses and a square well, are the rock-cut tombs tentatively ascribed to Artaxerxes II (405 to 361 BC), and further south to Artaxerxes III (361 to 338 BC) both are empty save for the burial troughs cut into the rock. As at Naqsh-e Rustam, the kings shown worshiping before a fire altar, but on the southern tomb the small figures supporting the king's platform are each labeled.

A track leads south over the mountain to a third rock-cut tomb that was never finished. It can be easily approached from the exterior of the platform, going south along the track from which one can see the immense size of the tettace. In the middle of this southern wall is an important trilingual inscription of Dariush the Great, unique in that the three versions are not exact translations but each gives some additional information. Together they assert that Darius, who gives his lineage and lists his possessions, built the foundations of Persepolis upon a hitherto unoccupied site.

Past the new excavations to the south-west and then crossing a small stream closer to the cliffs, in an angle of the rock, hidden behind a tumble of rocks and young trees, is the unfinished tomb which is believed was intended to house the last of the Achaemenians, Dariush III Codamanus.

The palaces under excavation on the plain below the terrace include one with inscriptions of Xerxes l, a temple, and other buildings of various dates. But Mr. Tadjvidi of the Iranian Archaeological Service has simultaneously parried out important work on the fortified walls that climb the mountain slopes to the east of the terrace, revealing many details of the original mud-brick construction and finding a significant new hoard of late Achaemenian seal impressions. The remains of several early Achaemenian palaces have been found in the nearby plain. In addition, the nucleus of the so-called Fratadara palace to the north-west of the platform, on the left of the Isfahan road, originally identified by Professor Herzfeld as that of a post-Achaemenian princeling 250 BC., has been re-excavated. Work has disclosed a probably early Achaemenian palace with brick doors and walls which were re-used at the later date. The supposed base of a fire altar, a few foundations and column bases and the standing sides of a stone window are all that remains of the later palace. On the window are two badly weathered reliefs, one showing a man with both hands raised (one holding a barsom), and the other a female figure. On the slopes of the mountain opposite this point is a quarry where an incomplete bull capital still stands in situ.




    Ruins of Persepolis, the Achaemenian period
Build around 500 B.C.

 Tomb of Cyrus II The Great, the Achaemenian period
Build around 550 B.C.
Inside the tomb there is a written script of Cyrus's words declaring that all people of all race and background are equal and have the same right to live and pursue individual interests.

 Some stone carving in Persepolis
 Another stone carving in Persepolis
 Another stone carving in Persepolis
 Dusk over Persepolis



پرسپولیس یعنی فارسی شهر واقع شده است و 58 کیلومتر از شیراز. پرسپولیس به طور عمده توسط من داریوش بزرگ (~ 500 قبل از میلاد) توسعه داده شد و تبدیل به شهرستان در حال اجرا با مدرن آب زبانه ، سیستم زهکشی ، خدمات پستی و بزرگراه ها با اتصال آن به شهرستانها از دیگر امپراتوری فارسی.
(یکی دیگر از نظریه می گوید که کوروش بزرگ انتخاب محل تخت جمشید ، که در اصل به نام پارسا بود ، و با این نسخهها کار در 518 سال قبل از میلاد توسط داریوش اول آغاز شده است وجود دارد)

اگر مسافرتی به ایران سفر تنها استان خوزستان و فارس ، او را دیده اند ، آنچه که عملا قلب ضروری از تاریخ ایران. فارس (پارسا باستان) -- میهن ایرانیان و منبع از نام تا اغلب به توجه به کل زمین شامل نه تنها تعداد زیادی از سایت های ماقبل تاریخ با نزدیک به 1،000 شناسایی در مرو دشت به تنهایی ، اما بزرگ هخامنشی و ساسانی باقی مانده است در کشور است.

احتمالا وجود دارد حل و فصل قابل ملاحظه در سایت از شیراز در دوره ماقبل تاریخ و سوابق خط میخی از پایتخت تشریفاتی بزرگ از تخت جمشید ، برخی از کیلومتر 58. به شمال ، نشان می دهد که آن شهرستان قابل توجهی در زمان هخامنشی بود. به عنوان یک شهرستان ، با این حال ، آن را در 684 میلادی تاسیس شد ، پس از ارتش های عرب را فتح مرکز استان از Istakhr ساسانیان در نزدیکی تخت جمشید.

شیراز اصفهان بزرگراه رویکردهای پرسپولیس یا تخت جمشید آن را به عنوان محلی شناخته شده است ، از غرب و چرخش نوک تیز به سمت شمال در راه پله های اصلی و دروازه ملل همه. پشت کوه در شرق تخت جمشید است.

پرسپولیس برای اولین بار تحت علمی جهت ارنست هرتسفلد بود ، و بعد از آن توسط EF اشمیت از طرف موسسه شرقی شیکاگو کاوش های باستان شناسی ، 1931 - 1939. در 1940s کاوشهای باستان شناسی ایران توسط سرویس ادامه داد بودند ، به کارگردانی برای اولین بار توسط آندره گدار و بعد از آن توسط علی سامی. اخیرا ، کاوشهای باستان شناسی ایران از خدمات را بر اساس جهت A. آقای تجویدی ، در حالی که ، تازه در همکاری با مقامات ایرانی. جوزپه و ان Britt Tilia از Istituto Italiano هر ایل Medio Oriente اد Estremo (ISMEO) است که با صبر و حوصله بازسازی ساختار آسیب دیده.

این است که شاید امکان آن بود که کمبوجیه دوم ، فرزند کوروش بزرگ ، که رخنمون سنگ در پای کوه رحمت به عنوان سایت از سلسله خانه جدید را انتخاب کرد. به گفته پروفسور پوپ ، مجموعه ای از ساختمان ها با تشکیل یک شهرستان مراسم که بسیار وجود راز از جهان خارج در یک زمان نگه داشته بود که از افتخارات دیگر ، سکولار ، پایتخت ها هخامنشی شوش ، بابل و Ecbatana به خوبی شناخته شده بودند. به عنوان پارسا می دانند که هخامنشیان -- -- اما در واقع باید از سوی برخی از تصادف عجیب و غریب از تاریخ است که پرسپولیس در سوابق خارجی هرگز ذکر شده بود ، برای آن در اینجا بود که نمایندگان بعد از همه از همه مردمان متنوع از امپراطوری گرد آمدند تا بیعت پرداخت ، و آن را ادای احترام ، به شاه شاهان ، احتمالا هر بهار ، در زمان باستان نوروز (سال نو) جشنواره.

این اسکندر که نابود کاخ با شکوه است ، نه مدت ها قبل از مرگ آخرین هخامنشیان ، داریوش سوم بود ، در سال 330 پیش از میلاد)

سیستم پیچیده ای از کانال های زهکشی و آب برش را به پایه های تراس نشان می دهد که کل طرح پیچیده با جزئیات طراحی شده بود قبل از هر گونه کار ساخت و ساز دیگر بود آغاز شده است.

کاخ ها بر روی پلت فرم در چهار سطح مجزا ، هر یک از دو متر بالاتر بودن مرتب شده اند. persepolis persepolis persepolis persepolis persepolis امتیاز : 397


تاریخ: 31/01/1390 ساعت: عدم نمايش بازدید: 128 نویسنده: طاها
Isfahan is situated in the center of the country, 435 KM south of Tehran. Isfahan is accesible from Tehran by deluxe bus via a 6 lane highway, train or an hour flight. Isfahan symbolizes the past and the present of Iran. It was a former capital of Persian kingdom during the Safavid dynasty. Most of the landmarks and monuments in this city have remained from that period.

Isfahan is one of the most beautiful cites in the world and was commonly referred to as half of the world because of its classic charm, flowered domes and giant minarets. Isfahan has tree-lined avenues, covered bridges and more than 200 mosques. Isfahan is perhaps, the most perfect urban space in the world, Maidan-e-Imam (Imam Square), which is twice as big as Moscow's Red Square is at the centeral part of the city. It attracts thousands of tourists from all over the world.

Although Isfahan is world famous for Islamic architecture it has one of the most fascinating Christian churches in the Middle East, i.e., the Armenian cathedral.

Isfahan is also an important industrial town with more than 1000 giant factories and indusrtial sites.


اصفهان در مرکز کشور، 435 کیلومتری جنوب تهران واقع شده است. اصفهان accesible از تهران با اتوبوس لوکس از طریق خط 6 بزرگراه ها ، قطار و یا پرواز ساعت می باشد. اصفهان نمادی از گذشته و حال ایران است. این پایتخت سابق پادشاهی فارسی در دوران سلسله صفوی می باشد. بسیاری از نقاط دیدنی و آثار تاریخی در این شهرستان را از آن دوره باقی مانده است.
اصفهان یکی از زیبا ترین رویا در جهان بود و معمولا به عنوان نیمی از جهان به دلیل جذابیت های کلاسیک خود را، گنبدها و مناره گل غول نامیده می شود. اصفهان تا درخت - اندود راه، پل ها و پوشش بیش از 200 مسجد. اصفهان است که شاید، فضای شهری کامل ترین در جهان است ، میدان نامه امام (میدان امام) است ، که دو برابر مسکو میدان سرخ بزرگ است در بخش مرکزی از شهرستان. این جذب هزاران نفر از گردشگران از سراسر جهان است.

هر چند اصفهان در جهان معروف برای معماری اسلامی آن را یکی از جذاب ترین کلیساهای مسیحی در شرق میانه، به عنوان مثال ، کلیسای ارمنی است.

اصفهان به شهر مهم صنعتی با بیش از 1000 کارخانه های بزرگ و سایت های indusrtial

isfahanاصفهان isfahanاصفهان isfahanاصفهان isfahanاصفهان isfahanاصفهان امتیاز : 392 دیدگاه(0)

تاریخ: 31/01/1390 ساعت: عدم نمايش بازدید: 171 نویسنده: طاها
Teheran is situated on the southern slopes of the Alborz mountain range. It lies at an elevation of 1,100 meters above the Caspian sea level and it is the vastest and the most populous city of Iran and also ranks among the prominent cities of the world.

Tehran was selected as the center of Iran during the Ghajar period (1800 A.D.) because of its pleasant weather and beauty of nature. Now it has grown to a conglomerade of ancient monuments, huge buildings, business centers, etc.

Damavand Peak (5672 m), the tallest mountain in Iran Plateau, is located on north of teheran and has inspired many poets and writers.


Dome of the world, O Damavand!
Chained, earth-bound White Giant
Whit your silver helmet
and your steel girth!
You hide yourself behind clouds
As if no man should look at your gentle face
When heaven's antagonism caused the Earth
To become cold and dark and silent and bleak,
It hits back in anger at Heaven with a punch.
You are that punch O damavand!
Oh, no, no, I'm not happy with what I said
You're not a punch thrown by Providence,
You are the unhappy heart of the Earth
Which is swollen with chronic pain.
(Malek-ol-Shoara Bahar)
Tehran which means warm slope, was a village in the suburb of the ancient Iranian capital of Ray, and after the fall of Ray by the Mongols in 1220 A.D., its residents moved to Tehran and the foundation for it to become a city was thus laid.

The oldest available historical records take Tehran as far back as the 3rd A.H./9th A.D. century; Yaqoot Hamavi, in his book Mo'jamol Boldan, says, Tehran is one of the villages of Ray.

The sectrial conflicts which was followed by the blind destructiveness, plunder and massacre launched by the Mongols (1218 - 1334 A.D.) brought about the destruction of Ray in 1220, and paved the way for the increase in population of Tehran. In 888/1378, with the rule of the Aq Qoyunlu (1378 - 1508) over Ray and Tehran, in the scope of geography Tehran began to enjoy a more glaring status.

After the gain of power by the Safavid Dynasty (1502 - 1736), Tehran attracted the attention of Shah Tahmasp 1, (1524 - 1576), son of Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid Dynasty, who was going on a pilgrimage to Imamzadeh Hamzeh (A.S.), crossing through this region. In 961/1553, he ordered the construction of walls around Tehran with 114 forts, matching the number of Suras in the Koran. Length of these walls measured to 6000 paces. Shah Abbas appointed a chief magistrate for Tehran, and furthermore ordered the planting of a plane-tree grove, the site of which later became the Arg of Tehran (Tehran Citadel).

From this point on, Tehran joined the ranks of the Safavid Dynasty cities; a city with walls comprised of 114 forts and renowned gates, namely:


  1. The Shah Abdul-Azim Gate
  2. The Doolab Gate
  3. The Shemiran Gate
  4. The Qazvin Gate

In the late Safavid period, upon the order of Shah Suleiman, a splendid building was erected at the site of Chenarestan-e Shah Abbassi (the Shah Abbassi Plane-Tree Grove) where Shah Sultan Hussein (1664-1722) of the Safavid Dynasty, during the final years of his reign, spent some time there and received the ambassador from Sultan Ahmed, Ottoman ruler.

The Afghans selected the city citadle as their living quarters, and as an escaping measure, they constructed a bridge over the moat of the northern side of the citadel safeguarded by a gate called Arg. This very gate later became the site of the ruins on which the Dowlat Gate was erected.

With the fall of the power into the hands of Nadir shah (1736-1747), the Afghans realized that they lacked the military strength to confront his forces and the danger that was impending, so they decided to ravage the city and massacre its inhabitants; that they did, and left behind numerous corps, many homeless, and a large number of ruined structures.

In the year 1153/1643, Nadir Shah bestowed Tehran to his son, Reza Qoli Mirza. Approximately 20 years later, Karim Khan Zand (1750-1779), the founder of the Zand Dynasty, in order to continue his fight against Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar (chief of the Qavanlu clan of the Qajars), captured the city and made it his military headquarters.

In 1173/1764, he ordered the construction of a large Diwankhaneh (government headquarters building) and a harem (seraglio), with its own surrounding walls and moats, inside the compound of the Tehran Citadel.

Agha Mohammad Khan, in 1200/1785, designated Tehran as his capital city, and after the elimination of all his rivals and enemies, he was formally crowned as shah at the Tehran Citadel. From this point on and until the fall of the Qajars, Tehran carried the title of Dar-ol Khelafeh (the Seat of the Caliphate) bestowed upon it by Agha Mohammad Khan, He was succeeded by his nephew Fath Ali Shah (1797-1834). During Fath Ali's reign, Tehran gradually improved and became more developed. New buildings were erected and the population began and upward trend with speculations that Tehran's population, in those years, was somewhere between 15 to 20 thousand. During the reign intenvals of Fath Ali Shah and his successor Mohammad Shah (1834-48) and until the beginning of Naser od-Din Shah's 1848-96) Tehran witnessed a three to four times population increase as well as the formation of new architectural structures including the Marmar (Marble) Ivan or Diwankhaneh va Darol Emareh (the Government Headquarters and the Governor's Seat), for the construction of which, the major materials were acquired from the Karim Khan's Vakil Palace in Shiras. Other monuments from this period were: the Golestan Garden and Palace, the Qajar Palace, the Khorroji Building, the Negarestan Garden and Palace, the Soltani Mosque, and a number of other splendid and luxurious structure, which were mainly used for the accommodation of nobles, generals and foreign ambassadors.

Tehran's truely remarkable growth coincided with the reign of Naserod-Din shah. The population of the city, over the course of a five year period, increased as much as three to four times. The number of people that lived in Tehran amounted to 155,736. Tehran at that time embodied the districts of Arg. Udlajan, Chal Maydan, Sangelaj, Bazaar and a number of outlying buildings around Tehran Known as the out of city quarters.

An important population characteristic observed in this census was the fact that immigrants constituted 73.4 percent of the population, while a mere 26.6 percent were accounted as Tehrani borns, Azarbyjanis, Isfahanis and Kashanis formed the majority of the immigrants, respectively.

The chief architectural structures of the period were the Mohammadiyeh Palace, the Lalehzar Garden and Building, the Sepahsalar Mosque and Theological School, the Darol Fonon School (Polyiechnic School), the Doshan Tappeh Palace, the Firouzeh (Turquiose) Palace, the Nezamiyeh Garden, the Horse Racing Track of Bageh-e Shah (Royal Graden), Badgir (Wind Tower) Building, the parade Ground and the Cossacks Barracks. The Shams-ol Emareh Building, the portal Minerates of the Soltani Mosque, the flourishing stage of Sabzeh Maydan (Greeneries Square) and its encirclement by newly built shops, in addition to many other structures erected during those days in every corner and hook of Tehran; the traces of which are still extant.

The furnishing of some of the alleys and streets of the vicinity around the citadel with gas lamps, owing to the endeavors of Haj Amir-ol Zarb, was among the period's valuable municipal undertakings.

The plant which manufactured the gas lamps, later became replaced by a small electric power plant in a street called Charagh Barq. Construction of the railroad from Tehran to the Shrine of Hazrat Abdul Azim, extension of telegraph lines and the establishment of an imperial Bank, are all among other public service credited to the same period.

In the second half of Naser-od Din shah's reign, in order to manage and improve the condition of the city, the Capital City Police and Municipality was formed, which also had the responsibility of city cleaning.

During the reign of Mozaftar od-Din Shah (reigned 1896-1907), Tehran did not undergo any drastic developmental activities, But unfortunately, over the course of his successor's reign, Mohammad Ali Shah (1907-1909) many severe damages were inflicted upon Tehran.

After the establishment of a constitutional government, Tehran has been declared, in the Constitution, as the capital and the seat of the Majlis. With ratification of Baladieh law in the First Majlis, the settlement of the city was transfered to this organization.

With power shift from Qajar to Pahlavi Tehran adopted the features of an European city. The avenues of Buzarjomehri, Molawi, and etc. are among manifestations of the above period, Later, however, other roads and modern buildings with the supervision of foreign engineers were constructed for the governmental and non-governmental entities. Some of those structures include Justice Department, Police Headqvarters, Train Station, Ministry of Finance, Customs Department, Iran's Academy of Leters. Tehran University. Teachers Training Cotlege, Nezam High School, Military School, Arms and Machine Gun Factory, Qaleh Morghi Airport, Doshan Tapeh Air Industries, Banks of Melli, Sepah, Keshavarzi (Agricultural), Rahni, and Kargoshaei, hospitals, Ministeries, Sa'adabad and a series of other imperial palaces, and the post Office-, Telephone-, Telegraph-, Wireless-, and Radio Station-, centers. There were also many other city military structures in addition to those of the private sector, all of which caused the expansion and population increase of Tehran; Furthermore, it was during the same years, based upon a declaration issued by the Academy of Letters, the terminology for municipality was changed from Baladieh into Shahrdari.

In the year 1302/1923, the population of Tehran amounted to 210,000 and by 1318/1639 reached the figure of 540,000, and during World War ll, following the occupation of Iran by the Allied Armed Forces in 1321/1941 , it increased to 880,000. This upward trend was mainly due to the first two decades of the thirteenth century's (solar calendar) boom in the construction activities for the erection of government buildings and palaces. During 1320-1330/1941-1951, an annual averages of 36,250 people were added to the population of Tehran, and according to the first general census the population of the city amounted to 1,512,000. It was from this point in time that the expansion progress of the city took gigantic dimensions; small and large sattelite towns as well as new districts were developed in the south, east and west of Tehran, all of which gradually became within the city limits of Tehran. The element of heavy traffic and the need for a more speedy transportation, paved the way for the construction of major highways. As a result, Tehran-Shmiran and Tehran-Ray travelling distances (subsequent to the demolition of brick-Iines and the development of market centers, automobile service stations, workshops, and residential dwellings) became an insignificant factor. At that point in time, according to the 1345/1966 census, the population of Tehran was 2,700,000, and by the following enumeration of the people living in Tehran, the number registered was 4,530,223.

A modern view of Tehran From Shahrivar 1320 / September 1941, and over the course of the subsequent four decades, the shape of the city heavily altered; the city witnessed the erection of large modern public and governmental buildings, replacement of the old Sangelaj district by a vast park at the center of the city, the construction of dams equipped with water purification facilities across the Karaj and Jajrud rivers which provided the means of supplying the households with drinking water via water pipelines.

The creation of new establishments and the development of urban facilities in Tehran, due to its special status, caused the influx of immigration into this city. New parks, sports arenas, well-equipped modern hospitals, movie theaters, theaters, museums, large hotels and resturants, and many other structures manifested the new features added to the city.

Upon the downfall of the Pahlavi regime, and the subsequent excitement it created among all sects of people, coinciding with the lack of efficient work-flow in the governmental and urban bodies, some irresponsible and opportunistic individuals in company with rural immigrants, without any conception of the consequences, rushed and took possession of the outlying lands around Tehran. It was during the nights that they worked, and by the break of the dawn there was a new quarter along with additional urban problemes, add to the city of Tehran.

Another view of Tehran During the imposed war with Iraq, Tehran was also encountered with many predicaments. From one side there was the influx of war refugee masses into the city, according to the 1986 general census the population of Tehran reached 6,043,514, and from another side there was the flow of Afghan and lraqi immigrants which raised the population figure to somewhere between 8 to 8.5 million. With the ending of the war a new era has started, an era towards restoration, reorganization and development based on sheer energy and constructiveness.

Thus, Tehran a city emerged from the old days is going to become, without the loss of its original identity, one of the most beautiful cities of the hemisphere of the world. Also, in the light of all the endeavors being witnessed at the every corner and nook of this city, the Tehranis - whom spend the majority portion of their lives not inside the house, but on the contrary outdoors - will definitely be furnished with future enhancements. Therefore, unquestionably, they look upon this city as their own home.

A day long tour around the city is not even enough to cover all the attractions of Tehran and another day for visiting monuments and museums is recommended.

Azadi square in Tehran
Keshavarz Blvd.: a modern view of Tehran
Baghe-Melli: an old view of Tehran
Outer view of the Golestan Museum
Inner view of the Golestan Museum
A bir's view of Tehran University
The City Theatre in Tehran
Ski slopes in Dizin in Northern Tehran


تهران در دامنه جنوبی رشته کوه البرز واقع شده است. آن را در ارتفاع 1،100 متری از سطح دریای خزر نهفته است و آن را vastest و پرجمعیت ترین شهرستان ایران و همچنین در بین شهرستانها برجسته جهان است.
تهران به عنوان مرکز ایران در دوره قاجار (1800 م) به علت آب و هوای دلپذیر و زیبایی از طبیعت انتخاب شده است. در حال حاضر آن را به conglomerade از آثار باستانی ، ساختمانهای بزرگ ، مراکز تجاری ، و غیره افزایش یافته است

قله دماوند (5،672 متر) ، بلندترین کوه ایران فلات است ، در شمال تهران واقع شده و الهام بخش بسیاری از شاعران و نویسندگان.

گنبد در جهان ، ای دماوند!
زنجیرهای ، زمین متصل به سفید غول پیکر
ذره کلاه نقره ات را
فولاد و دور خود!
خودتان را پشت ابرها پنهان شما
همانطور که اگر هیچ انسان باید در چهره مهربان خود را نگاه
وقتی که آسمان را ناشی از خصومت زمین
برای تبدیل شدن به سرد و تاریک و ساکت و تلخ ،
این بازدید خشم در پشت در بهشت ​​با پانچ.
شما که منگنه ای دماوند!
آه ، نه ، نه ، من خوشحالم با آنچه من گفتم نه
تو منگنه پرتاب شده توسط پراویدنس نیست ،
شما قلب ناراضی از زمین
کدام تورم مبتلا به درد مزمن.
(ملک الشعرا بهار الملک)
تهران که به معنی شیب گرم ، روستایی در حومه پایتخت ایران باستان از ری بود ، و پس از سقوط از ری توسط مغولان در 1220 میلادی ، ساکنان آن به تهران نقل مکان کرد و شالوده ای است برای آن را به تبدیل شدن به یک شهرستان در نتیجه گذاشته شد .
قدیمی ترین در دسترس سوابق تاریخی را به عنوان تهران دور برگشت به عنوان AH/9th قرن 3 میلادی ؛ Yaqoot Hamavi ، در کتاب خود Mo'jamol Boldan ، می گوید ، تهران یکی از روستاهای ری.

درگیری های sectrial که توسط destructiveness کور و چپاول و قتل و کشتار راه اندازی شده توسط مغولان به دنبال داشت (1218 -- 1334 م) موجب تخریب ری در 1220 ، و هموار راه را برای افزایش جمعیت تهران. در 888/1378 ، با حکومت Qoyunlu آق (1378 -- 1508) بیش از ری و تهران ، در محدوده جغرافیای تهران شروع به لذت بردن از وضعیت بیشتر خودنمایی میکند.

پس از کسب قدرت توسط سلسله صفویه (1502 -- 1736) ، تهران جلب توجه از شاه طهماسب اول 1 ، (1524-1576) ، پسر شاه اسماعیل ، موسس سلسله صفوی ، که در حال رفتن به زیارت امامزادگان شد حمزه (ع) ، عبور از طریق این منطقه است. در 961/1553 ، او به ساخت و ساز از دیوارهای اطراف تهران با 114 دستور داد قلعه ، مطابق با تعداد سوره ها در قرآن. طول این دیوارها تا 6000 اندازه گیری paces. شاه عباس قاضی ارشد تهران منصوب شده ، و علاوه بر این دستور داد یک هواپیما از کاشت درخت بیشه ، از سایت که بعدها از ارگ تهران (تهران ارگ).

از این مرحله ، تهران پیوست صفوف شهرستانها سلسله صفویه ؛ شهرستان با دیوارهای متشکل از 114 قلعه و دروازه مشهور است ، یعنی :


شاه عبد عظیم دروازه

دروازه Doolab

دروازه شمیران

دروازه قزوین

در اواخر دوره صفویه ، پس به دستور شاه سلیمان ، ساختمان پر زرق و برق ساخته شد در محل Chenarestan نامه شاه عباسی (شاه عباسی هواپیما درخت گراو) که در آن شاه سلطان حسین (1664-1722) از سلسله صفوی ، در سالهای آخر سلطنت خود ، مدتی وجود دارد و با دریافت این سفیر از جانب سلطان احمد ، حاکم عثمانی.

افغان citadle شهرستان به عنوان اقامتگاه خود انتخاب ، و به عنوان اندازه گیری فرار ، آنها پل بر خندق از سمت شمال ارگ حفاظت شده توسط به نام دروازه ارگ ​​ساخته شده است. این دروازه بسیار بعد از سایت که بر روی خرابه های دروازه دولت بود ساخته شد.

با سقوط از قدرت به دست نادر شاه (1736-1747) ، افغان ها متوجه شدم که آنها فاقد توان نظامی برای مقابله با نیروهای خود و خطر قریب الوقوع که بود ، به طوری که آنها تصمیم به تاخت و تاز و قتل و کشتار شهرستان ساکنان آن ؛ که آنها را انجام داد ، و سمت چپ در پشت سپاه متعدد ، بسیاری از افراد بی خانمان ، و تعداد زیادی از سازه های خراب.

در سال 1153/1643 ، نادر شاه تهران به پسر خود رضا قلی میرزا عطا. حدود 20 سال بعد ، کریم خان زند (1750-1779) ، بنیانگذار سلسله زند ، به منظور ادامه مبارزه خود را در برابر محمد حسن خان قاجار (رئیس قبیله Qavanlu از قاجارها) ، اسیر شهرستان و آن را به خود فرماندهی های نظامی.

در 1173/1764 ، او دستور داد ساخت و ساز از بزرگ Diwankhaneh (ساختمان مقر دولت) و حرمسرا (حرم) ، با خود دیوارهای اطراف و moats ، داخل ترکیب از ارگ تهران.

آقا محمد خان ، در 1200/1785 ، شهرستان تهران به عنوان پایتخت خود را تعیین ، و بعد از حذف از تمام رقبای خود و دشمنان ، او به طور رسمی به عنوان شاه در ارگ تهران بود تاج گذاری کرد. از این مرحله و تا سقوط قاجار ، تهران به اجرا درآمد عنوان دار - کمالالملک Khelafeh (مقر خلافت) بر آن توسط آقا محمد خان ارزانی داشتید ، و پس از او برادرزاده اش فتحعلی شاه موفق شد (1797-1834) . در طول سلطنت فتح علی ، تهران به تدریج بهبود یافته و توسعه یافته تر شد. ساختمان های جدید ساخته شد و جمعیت آغاز شد و روند رو به بالا با گمانه زنی ها که جمعیت تهران ، در آن سالها بود ، جایی بین 15 - 20،000. در طول intenvals سلطنت فتح علی شاه و جانشین او محمد شاه (1834-1848) و تا آغاز 1848-1896 od ناصر الدین شاه) تهران شاهد سه تا چهار برابر افزایش جمعیت و همچنین شکل گیری ساختار جدید معماری از جمله مرمر) ایوان یا Diwankhaneh ورتبرال Darol العماره (ستاد دولت و صندلی فرماندار) ، برای ساخت آن ، مواد عمده از کریم خان وکیل در قصر Shiras به دست آورد شد. دیگر از آثار این دوره عبارت بودند از : باغ و کاخ گلستان ، قصر قاجار ، ساختمان Khorroji ، باغ نگارستان و قصر ، مسجد سلطانی ، و تعداد دیگری از ساختار پر زرق و برق و مجلل ، که عمدتا برای خوابگاه از اشراف مورد استفاده قرار گرفت ، ژنرال ها و سفرای خارجی است.

واقعا قابل توجه تهران به رشد همزمان با سلطنت Naserod الدین شاه. جمعیت این شهرستان ، در طول پنج سال دوره ، افزایش یافته تا آنجا که سه تا چهار بار. تعداد زیادی از مردم که زندگی در تهران به مبلغ 155،736. تهران در آن زمان مجسم ولسوالی ارگ. Udlajan ، چال Maydan ، Sangelaj ، بازار و تعدادی از ساختمان های دور از مرکز در اطراف تهران به عنوان شناخته شده از محله های شهرستان.

مشخصه مهم جمعیت مشاهده شده در این سرشماری بود این واقعیت است که مهاجران را تشکیل 73.4 درصد از جمعیت ، در حالی که تنها 26.6 درصد نوزادان ، به عنوان تهرانی ، Azarbyjanis ، Isfahanis و Kashanis تشکیل اکثریت مهاجران ، به ترتیب قرار گرفته است.

سازه های معماری رئیس دوره شدند کاخ Mohammadiyeh ، باغ لاله زار و ساختمان ، مسجد Sepahsalar و کلامی مدرسه ، Darol Fonon دانشکده (Polyiechnic دانشکده) ، Doshan تپه قصر ، فیروزه (Turquiose) کاخ ، باغ Nezamiyeh ، اسب مسابقه آهنگ از Bageh نامه شاه (سلطنتی Graden) ، بادگیر (باد برج) ، ساختمان زمین و رژه پادگان قزاقها. شمس العماره کمالالملک ، ساختمان Minerates پورتال از مسجد سلطانی ، مرحله شکوفایی سبزه Maydan (Greeneries مربع) و محاصره خود را با مغازه ها به تازگی ساخته شده است ، علاوه بر بسیاری دیگر از سازه های بنا در آن روزها در هر گوشه و قلاب از تهران ؛ آثار آن هنوز باقی مانده.

تجهیز برخی از کوچه ها و خیابان های اطراف در اطراف ارگ با چراغ گاز ، با توجه به همت حاج ضارب امیر کمالالملک ، در میان مدت این اقدامات ارزشمند شهرداری.

گیاهی که تولید لامپ های گازی ، بعدها توسط یک گیاه کوچک برق در خیابان جایگزین به نام Charagh Barq. ساخت راه آهن از تهران به حرم حضرت عبدل عظیم ، گسترش خطوط تلگراف و تاسیس بانک شاهنشاهی ، همه در میان سرویس های عمومی دیگر اعتبار به مدت مشابه.

در نیمه دوم از سلطنت ناصر الدین شاه - od است ، به منظور مدیریت و بهبود وضعیت شهرستان ، مرکز شهر پلیس و شهرداری ، تشکیل شده بود که نیز تا به حال مسئولیت تمیز شهرستان.

در طول سلطنت Mozaftar od الدین شاه (حاکم 1896-1907) ، تهران هیچ یک از فعالیت های شدید رشد و نمو تحت نیست ، اما متاسفانه در این دوره از سلطنت جانشین او ، محمد علی شاه (1907-1909) بسیاری از خسارات شدید بر تحمیل شد تهران.

پس از استقرار دولت مشروطه ، تهران شده است ، اعلام کرد که در قانون اساسی ، به عنوان پایتخت و مقر مجلس. با تصویب قانون Baladieh در مجلس اول ، حل و فصل این شهرستان به سازمان منتقل خواهد شد.

با انتقال قدرت از قاجار به پهلوی ، تهران به تصویب رسید تصویری از شهرستان اروپا. راههای Buzarjomehri ، Molawi ، و غیره در میان تظاهرات از دوره فوق ، پس از آن ، با این حال ، جاده ها و دیگر ساختمان های مدرن و با نظارت مهندسان خارجی برای نهادهای دولتی و غیر دولتی ساخته شد. برخی از آنها عبارتند از سازه های وزارت دادگستری ، پلیس Headqvarters ، ایستگاه قطار ، وزارت دارایی ، گمرک ، وزارت فرهنگستان Leters. دانشگاه تهران. آموزش معلمان Cotlege ، نظام دبیرستان ، دانشکده نظامی ، سلاح ها و ماشین آلات کارخانه تفنگ ، قلعه Morghi فرودگاه ، Doshan تپه صنایع هوایی ، از بانکهای ملی ، سپه ، کشاورزی (کشاورزی) ، Rahni ، و Kargoshaei ، بیمارستان ها ، وزارتخانه ها ، Sa'adabad و مجموعه ای از قصر دیگر امپریالیستی ، و اداره پست - ، - تلفن ، تلگراف ، ، بی سیم ، رادیو و ایستگاه ها ، مراکز. نیز وجود دارد بسیاری از ساختارهای دیگر نظامی در شهرستان علاوه بر کسانی که از بخش خصوصی ، که همه ناشی از گسترش و افزایش جمعیت تهران ؛ علاوه بر این ، آن را در همان سالها بود ، بر اساس بیانیه منتشر شده از سوی آکادمی ادبیات ، اصطلاحات برای شهرداری بود از Baladieh به شهرداری تغییر کرده است.

در سال 1302/1923 ، جمعیت تهران به مبلغ 210.000 و توسط 1318/1639 رقم 540.000 رسید ، و در طول جنگ جهانی تخم ریزی ، پس از اشغال ایران توسط نیروهای متفقین مسلح در 1321/1941 ، آن را به 880.000 افزایش یافته است . این روند به سمت بالا به طور عمده مربوط به دو دهه اول قرن سیزدهم را (شمسی) در رونق فعالیت های ساخت و ساز برای نصب از ساختمان های دولتی و قصر. در طول 1320-1330/1941-1951 ، به طور متوسط ​​سالانه از 36،250 نفر به جمعیت تهران افزوده شد ، و با توجه به اولین سرشماری عمومی جمعیت شهرستان بالغ بر 1،512،000. کوچک و بزرگ شهرهای ماهواره ای و همچنین مناطق جدید در جنوب غرب ، شرق و تهران ، که همه آنها به تدریج در محدوده شهرستان از تبدیل شد به دست آمد ، آن را از این مقطع زمانی که پیشرفت توسعه شهرستان در زمان ابعاد غول پیکر شد تهران. عنصر از ترافیک سنگین و نیاز به حمل و نقل سریع تر ، هموار راه را برای ساخت بزرگراه عمده. در نتیجه ، در تهران و Shmiran تهران ری مسافت سفر (پس از آن به تخریب آجر Iines و توسعه مراکز بازار ، خودرو ایستگاه خدمات ، کارگاه ها و منازل مسکونی) عامل ناچیز شد. در آن نقطه در زمان ، بر اساس سرشماری 1345/1966 ، جمعیت تهران بود 2،700،000 ، و با شمارش زیر از مردم زندگی در تهران ، تعداد ثبت شده 4،530،223 شد.

از 1320 شهریور / سپتامبر 1941 ، و در طول چهار دهه پس از آن ، شکل از شهرستان به شدت تغییر داده ؛ شهرستان نصب عمومی بزرگ مدرن و ساختمان های دولتی ، جایگزینی منطقه Sangelaj قدیمی های گسترده در پارک شاهد مرکز شهرستان ، احداث سد مجهز به امکانات تصفیه آب در سراسر رودخانه جاجرود و کرج ارائه شده که به معنی تهیه خانوار با نوشیدن آب از طریق خط لوله آب.

ایجاد موسسات جدید و توسعه امکانات شهری در تهران ، به دلیل وضعیت خاص خود ، هجوم از مهاجرت به این شهرستان ایجاد می شود. پارک های جدید ، میادین ورزشی ، مجهز مدرن بیمارستان ها ، سینماها ، تئاترها ، موزه ها ، هتل بزرگ و resturants ، و بسیاری از ساختارهای دیگر تجلی ویژگی های جدید افزوده شده به شهرستان.

پس از سقوط رژیم پهلوی ، و پس از آن هیجان آن را در میان تمام فرقه ها از مردم ایجاد شده ، همزمان با عدم کارآمد جریان کار در سازمان های دولتی و شهری ، بعضی از افراد فرصت طلب و بی مسئولیت در شرکت با مهاجران روستایی ، بدون هیچ گونه مفهوم از پیامدهای با عجله و در زمان در اختیار داشتن زمین های دور افتاده در اطراف تهران. آن را در طول شب که آنها مشغول به کار شد ، و با شکستن از سپیده دم یک چهارم جدید وجود داشت به همراه problemes اضافی شهری ، اضافه کردن به شهرستان تهران.

در طول جنگ تحمیلی با عراق ، تهران نیز با predicaments بسیاری مواجه بود. از یک طرف توده های مردم هجوم پناهندگان جنگ به شهرستان وجود داشت ، با توجه به سرشماری سال 1986 کل جمعیت تهران رسید 6،043،514 ، و از طرف دیگر جریان مهاجران افغان و lraqi که مطرح شده این رقم به جمعیت جایی بین 8 وجود داشت تا 8.5 میلیون نفر است. با پایان جنگ عصر جدید را آغاز کرده است ، نسبت به دوران بازسازی ، سازماندهی مجدد و توسعه بر اساس انرژی قاطعانه و constructiveness.

بنابراین ، تهران شهرستان برآمده از روزگاران قدیم می گذرد ، برای تبدیل شدن ، بدون از دست دادن هویت اصلی خود ، یکی از شهرستانها زیباترین نیمکره از جهان است. همچنین ، در پرتو همه تلاش می شود در گوشه و هر گوشه از این شهرستان شاهد ، تهرانی -- که صرف بخش اعظم زندگی خود را در داخل خانه اش نمی اندازد ، اما در خارج از منزل خلاف -- قطعا با پیشرفتهای آینده باشد مبله . بنابراین ، بدون شک ، آنها بر این شهرستان به عنوان خانه خود را نگاه کنند.

تور طولانی روز در اطراف شهرستان است حتی به اندازه کافی برای پوشش دادن جاذبه های تهران و روز دیگری است برای بازدید از آثار تاریخی و موزه ها توصیه نمی شود.

میدان آزادی در تهران
بلوار کشاورز : مشاهده مدرن از تهران
باغ ملی : نمایش های قدیمی از تهران
نمایش بیرونی موزه گلستان
نمایش داخلی موزه گلستان
مشاهده bir از دانشگاه تهران
تئاتر شهر در تهران
دامنه های اسکی در دیزین در شمال تهران

tehran tehran tehran tehran tehran امتیاز : 529 دیدگاه(0)

تاریخ: 31/01/1390 ساعت: عدم نمايش بازدید: 92 نویسنده: طاها

Shiraz is perhaps one of the most attractive of all Iranian cities. It it situsted in 919 KM south of Tehran. Although there is deluxe bus and train service, it is recommended to take an hour flight from Tehran to get to Shiraz. Because of its altitude, 1600 meters (5000 feet) the climate is very agreeable, a mild winter and bearable heat in summer.

Shiraz has always been the center of art and literature in the Middle East. One of the oldest universities dating back to the 7th Century and tomb of the greatest poets and philosophers have been located in this city.

    Tomb of Saadi, the great Persian poet in Shiraz

 Vakil Mosque in Shiraz
The 48 spiral shaped columns carry the weight of the whole building without using any metal reinforecement.

 Eram Park with historical monuments in Shiraz
Eram in Persian means paradise and this park was named Eram beacuse of its charm, purity and beauty.

 Arke Karim Khan Zand in Shiraz
This was a military compound and castle built in 1749 by Karim Khan Zand the first king of the Zandieh dynasty. It is now turned to museum.

شیراز شاید یکی از جذاب ترین از همه شهرستانها ایران. آن را در 919 کیلومتری جنوب تهران situsted. اگرچه اتوبوس لوکس و خدمات قطار وجود دارد، توصیه می شود را به پرواز یک ساعت یک از تهران برای رفتن به شیراز. از آنجا که از ارتفاع آن، 1600 متر (5000 فوت) آب و هوای بسیار دلپذیر، زمستان معتدل و در تابستان حرارت تحمل پذیر.

شیراز همواره مرکز هنر و ادبیات را در شرق میانه بوده است. یکی از قدیمی ترین دانشگاه که قدمت آن به قرن 7th آرامگاه و از بزرگترین شاعران و فلاسفه شده اند در این شهرستان واقع شده است.

     آرامگاه سعدی، شاعر بزرگ فارسی در شیراز

  مسجد وکیل در شیراز
48 ستون مارپیچی شکل حمل وزن کل ساختمان بدون استفاده از هر reinforecement فلز.

  پارک ارم با آثار تاریخی در شیراز
ارم در فارسی به معنی بهشت و این پارک ارم به دلیل جذابیت، پاکی و زیبایی، نامگذاری شد.

  کریم خان در شیراز Arke زند
این ترکیب نظامی و قلعه در 1749 توسط کریم خان زند اولین پادشاه سلسله زندیه ساخته شده است. در حال حاضر به موزه تبدیل شده است.

shiraz shiraz shiraz shiraz shiraz امتیاز : 383 دیدگاه(0)

تاریخ: 31/01/1390 ساعت: عدم نمايش بازدید: 141 نویسنده: طاها


The Epic of Shahnameh Ferdowsi
(The Epic of Kings: Hero Tales of Ancient Persia)

created by

Hakim Abol-Ghasem Ferdowsi Toosi
World famous Persian (Iranian) poet




Chapter 1

The Shahs of Old

Kaiumers first sat upon the throne of Persia, and was master of the world. He took up his abode in the mountains, and clad himself and his people in tiger-skins, and from him sprang all kindly nurture and the arts of clothing, till then unknown. Men and beasts from all parts of the earth came to do him homage and receive laws at his hands, and his glory was like to the sun. Then Ahriman the Evil, when he saw how the Shah's honour was increased, waxed envious, and sought to usurp the diadem of the world. So he bade his son, a mighty Deev, gather together an army to go out against Kaiumers and his beloved son Saiamuk and destroy them utterly.

Now the Serosch, the angel who defendeth men from the snares of the Deevs, and who each night flieth seven times around the earth that he may watch over the children of Ormuzd, when he learned this, appeared like unto a Peri and warned Kaiumers. So when Saiamuk set forth at the head of his warriors to meet the army of Ahriman, he knew that he was contending against a Deev, and he put forth all his strength. But the Deev was mightier than he, and overcame him, and crushed him under his hands.

When Kaiumers heard the news of mourning, he was bowed to the ground. For a year did he weep without ceasing, and his army wept with him; yea, even the savage beasts and the birds of the air joined in the wailing. And sorrow reigned in the land, and all the world was darkened until the Serosch bade the Shah lift his head and think on vengeance. And Kaiumers obeyed, and commanded Husheng, the son of Saiamuk, "Take the lead of the army, and march against the Deevs." And the King, by reason of his great age, went in the rear. Now there were in the host Peris; also tigers, lions, wolves, and other fierce creatures, and when the black Deev heard their roaring he trembled for very fear. Neither could he hold himself against them, and Husheng routed him utterly. Then when Kaiumers saw that his well-beloved son was revenged he laid him down to die, and the world was void of him, and Husheng reigned in his stead.

Now Husheng was a wise man and just, and the heavens revolved over his throne forty years. justice did he spread over the land, and the world was better for his reign. For he first gave to men fire, and showed them how to draw it from out the stone; and he taught them how they might lead the rivers, that they should water the land and make it fertile; and he bade them till and reap. And he divided the beasts and paired them and gave them names. And when he passed to a brighter life he left the world empty of a throne of power. But Tahumers, his son, was not unworthy of his sire. He too opened the eyes of men, and they learned to spin and to weave; and he reigned over the land long and mightily. But of him also were the Deevs right envious, and sought to destroy him. Yet Tahumers overcame them and cast them to earth. Then some craved mercy at his hands, and sware how they would show him an art if he would spare them, and Tahumers listened to their voice. And they taught him the art of writing, and thus from the evil Deevs came a boon upon mankind.

Howbeit when Tahumers had sat upon the golden throne for the space of thirty years he passed away, but his works endured; and Jemshid, his glorious son, whose heart was filled with the counsels of his father, came after him. Now Jemshid reigned over the land seven hundred years girt with might, and Deevs, birds, and Peris obeyed him. And the world was happier for his sake, and he too was glad, and death was unknown among men, neither did they wot of pain or sorrow. And he first parcelled out men into classes; priests, warriors, artificers, and husbandmen did he name them. And the year also he divided into periods. And by aid of the Deevs he raised mighty works, and Persepolis was builded by him, that to this day is called Tukht-e-Jemsheed, which being interpreted meaneth the throne of Jemshid. Then, when these things were accomplished, men flocked from all corners of the earth around his throne to do him homage and pour gifts before his face. And Jemshid prepared a feast, and bade them keep it, and called it Neurouz, which is the New Day, and the people of Persia keep it to this hour. And Jemshid's power increased, and the world was at peace, and men beheld in him nought but what was good.

Then it came about that the heart of Jemshid was uplifted in pride, and he forgot whence came his weal and the source of his blessings. He beheld only himself upon the earth, and he named himself God, and sent forth his image to be worshipped. But when he had spoken thus, the Mubids, which are astrologers and wise men, hung their heads in sorrow, and no man knew how he should answer the Shah. And God withdrew his hand from Jemshid, and the kings and the nobles rose up against him, and removed their warriors from his court, and Ahriman had power over the land.

Now there dwelt in the deserts of Arabia a king named Mirtas, generous and just, and he had a son, Zohak, whom he loved. And it came about that Ahriman visited the palace disguised as a noble, and tempted Zohak that he should depart from the paths of virtue. And he spake unto him and said-


"If thou wilt listen to me, and enter into a covenant, I will raise thy head above the sun."

Now the young man was guileless and simple of heart, and he sware unto the Deev that he would obey him in all things. Then Ahriman bade him slay his father,


"for this old man,"

he said,


"cumbereth the ground, and while he liveth thou wilt remain unknown."

When Zohak heard this he was filled with grief, and would have broken his oath, but Ahriman suffered him not, but made him set a trap for Mirtas. And Zohak and the evil Ahriman held their peace and Mirtas fell into the snare and was killed. Then Zohak placed the crown of Thasis upon his head, and Ahriman taught him the arts of magic, and he ruled over his people in good and evil, for he was not yet wholly given up to guile.

Then Ahriman imagined a device in his black heart. He took upon himself the form of a youth, and craved that he might serve the King as cook. And Zohak, who knew him not, received him well and granted his request, and the keys of the kitchen were given unto him. Now hitherto men had been nourished with herbs, but Ahriman prepared flesh for Zohak. New dishes did he put before him, and the royal favour was accorded to his savory meats. And the flesh gave the King courage and strength like to that of a lion, and he commanded that his cook should be brought before him and ask a boon at his hands. And the cook said-


"If the King take pleasure in his servant, grant that he may kiss his shoulders."

Now Zohak, who feared no evil, granted the request, and Ahriman kissed him on his shoulders. And when he had done so, the ground opened beneath his feet and covered the cook, so that all men present were amazed thereat. But from his kiss sprang hissing serpents, venomous and black; and the King was afraid, and desired that they should be cut off from the root. But as often as the snakes were cut down did they grow again, and in vain the wise men and physicians cast about for a remedy. Then Ahriman came once again disguised as a learned man, and was led before Zohak, and he spake, saying-


"This ill cannot be healed, neither can the serpents be uprooted. Prepare food for them, therefore, that they may be fed, and give unto them for nourishment the brains of men, for perchance this may destroy them."

But in his secret heart Ahriman desired that the world might thus be made desolate; and daily were the serpents fed, and the fear of the King was great in the land. The world withered in his thrall, the customs of good men were forgotten, and the desires of the wicked were accomplished.

Now it was spread abroad in Iran that in the land of Thasis there reigned a man who was mighty and terrible to his foes. Then the kings and nobles who had withdrawn from Jemshid because he had rebelled against God, turned to Zohak and besought him that he would be their ruler, and they proclaimed him Shah. And the armies of Arabia and Persia marched against Jemshid, and he fled before their face. For the space of twice fifty years no man knew whither he was gone, for he hid from the wrath of the Serpent-King. But in the fulness of time he could no longer escape the fury of Zohak, whose servants found him as he wandered on the sea-shore of Cathay, and they sawed him in twain, and sent tidings thereof to their lord. And thus perished the throne and power of Jemshid like unto the grass that withereth, because that he was grown proud, and would have lifted himself above his Maker.

So the beloved of Ahriman, Zohak the Serpent, sat upon the throne of Iran, the kingdom of Light. And he continued to pile evil upon evil till the measure thereof was full to overflowing, and all the land cried out against him. But Zohak and his councillors, the Deevs, shut ear unto this cry, and the Shah reigned thus for the space of a thousand years, and vice stalked in daylight, but virtue was hidden. And despair filled all hearts, for it was as though mankind must perish to still the appetite of those snakes sprung from Evil, for daily were two men slaughtered to satisfy their desire. Neither had Zohak mercy upon any man. And darkness was spread over the land because of his wickedness.

But Ormuzd saw it and was moved with compassion for his people, and he declared they should no longer suffer for the sin of Jemshid. And he caused a grandson to be born to Jemshid, and his parents called him Feridoun.

Now it befell that when he was born, Zohak dreamed he beheld a youth slender like to a cypress, and he came towards him bearing a cow-headed mace, and with it he struck Zohak to the ground. Then the tyrant awoke and trembled, and called for his Mubids, that they should interpret to him this dream. And they were troubled, for they foresaw danger, and he menaced them if they foretold him evil. And they were silent for fear three days, but on the fourth one who had courage spake and said-


"There will arise one named Feridoun, who shall inherit thy throne and reverse thy fortunes, and strike thee down with a cow-headed mace."

When Zohak heard these words he swooned, and the Mubids fled before his wrath. But when he had recovered he bade the world be scoured for Feridoun. And henceforth Zohak was consumed for bitterness of spirit, and he knew neither rest nor joy.

Now it came about that the mother of Feridoun feared lest the Shah should destroy the child if he learned that he was sprung from Jemshid's race. So she hid him in the thick forest where dwelt the wondrous cow Purmaieh, whose hairs were like unto the plumes of a peacock for beauty. And she prayed the guardian of Purmaieh to have a care of her son, and for three years he was reared in the wood, and Purmaieh was his nurse. But when the time was accomplished the mother knew that news of Purmaieh had reached the ears of Zohak, and she feared he would find her son. Therefore she took him far into Ind, to a pious hermit who dwelt on the Mount Alberz. And she prayed the hermit to guard her boy, who was destined for mighty deeds. And the hermit granted her request. And it befell that while she sojourned with him Zohak had found the beauteous Purmaieh and learned of Feridoun, and when he heard that the boy was fled he was like unto a mad elephant in his fury. He slew the wondrous cow and all the living things round about, and made the forest a desert. Then he continued his search, but neither tidings nor sight could he get of Feridoun, and his heart was filled with anguish.

In this year Zohak caused his army to be strengthened, and he demanded of his people that they should certify that he had ever been to them a just and noble king. And they obeyed for very fear. But while they sware there arose without the doorway of the Shah the cry of one who demanded justice. And Zohak commanded that he should be brought in, and the man stood before the assembly of the nobles.

Then Zohak opened his mouth and said,


"I charge thee give a name unto him who hath done thee wrong."

And the man, when he saw it was the Shah who questioned him, smote his head with his hands. But he answered and said-


"I am Kawah, a blacksmith and a blameless man, and I sue for justice, and it is against thee, O King, that I cry out. Seventeen fair sons have I called mine, yet only one remaineth to me, for that his brethren were slain to still the hunger of thy serpents, and now they have taken from me this last child also. I pray thee spare him unto me, nor heap thy cruelties upon the land past bearing."

And the Shah feared Kawah's wrath, beholding that it was great, and he granted him the life of his son and sought to win him with soft words. Then he prayed him that he would also sign the testimony that Zohak was a just and noble king. But Kawah cried,


"Not so, thou wicked and ignoble man, ally of Deevs, I will not lend my hand unto this lie,"

and he seized the declaration and tore it into fragments and scattered them into the air. And when he had done so he strode forth from the palace, and all the nobles and people were astonished, so that none dared uplift a finger to restrain him. Then Kawah went to the market-place and related to the people all that which he had seen, and recalled to them the evil deeds of Zohak and the wrongs they had suffered at his hands. And he provoked them to shake off the yoke of Ahriman. And taking off the leathern apron wherewith blacksmiths cover their knees when they strike with the hammer, he raised it aloft upon the point of a lance and cried-


"Be this our banner to march forth and seek out Feridoun and entreat him that he deliver us from out the hands of the Serpent-King."

Then the people set up a shout of joy and gathered themselves round Kawah, and he led them out of the city bearing aloft his standard. And they marched thus for many days unto the palace of Feridoun.

Now these things came about in the land of Iran after twice eight years were passed over the head of Feridoun. And when that time was accomplished, he descended from the Mount Alberz and sought out his mother, questioning her of his lineage. And she told him how that he was sprung from the race of Jemshid, and also of Zohak and of his evil deeds.

Then said Feridoun,


"I will uproot this monster from the earth, and his palace will I raze to the dust."

But his mother spake, and said,


"Not so, my son, let not thine youthful anger betray thee; for how canst thou stand against all the world?"

Yet not long did she suffer the hard task to hinder him, for soon a mighty crowd came towards the palace led by one who bare an apron uplifted upon a lance. Then Feridoun knew that succour was come unto him. And when he had listened to Kawah, he came into the presence of his mother with the helmet of kings upon his head, and he said unto her-


"Mother, I go to the wars, and it remaineth for thee to pray God for my safety."

Then he caused a mighty club to be made for him, and he traced the pattern thereof upon the ground, and the top thereof was the head of a cow, in memory of Purmaieh, his nurse. Then he cased the standard of Kawah in rich brocades of Roum, and hung jewels upon it. And when all was made ready, they set forth towards the West to seek out Zohak, for, they knew not that he was gone to Ind in search of Feridoun. Now when they were come to Bagdad, which is upon the banks of the Tigris, they halted, and Feridoun bade the guardians of the flood convey them across. But these refused, saying, the King bade that none should pass save only those who bore the royal seal. When Feridoun heard these words he was wroth, and he regarded not the rushing river nor the dangers hidden within its floods. He girded his loins and plunged with his steed into the waters, and all the army followed after him. Now they struggled sore with the rushing stream, and it seemed as though the waves would bear them down. But their brave horses overcame all dangers, and they stepped in safety upon the shore. Then they turned their faces towards the city which is now called Jerusalem, for here stood the glorious house that Zohak had builded. And when they had entered the city all the people rallied round Feridoun, for they hated Zohak and looked to Feridoun to deliver them. And he slew the Deevs that held the palace, and cast down the evil talisman that was graven upon the walls. Then he mounted the throne of the idolater and placed the crown of Iran upon his head, and all the people bowed down before him and called him Shah.

Now when Zohak returned from his search after Feridoun and learned that he was seated upon his throne, he encompassed the city with his host. But the army of Feridoun marched against him, and the desires of the people went with them. And all that day bricks fell from the walls and stones from the terraces, and it rained arrows and spears like to hail falling from a dark cloud, until Feridoun had overcome the might of Zohak. Then Feridoun raised his cow-headed mace to slay the Serpent-King. But the blessed Serosch swooped down, and cried-


"Not so, strike not, for Zohak's hour is not yet come."

Then the Serosch bade the Shah bind the usurper and carry him far from the haunts of men, and there fasten him to a rock. And Feridoun did as he was bidden, and led forth Zohak to the Mount Demawend. And he bound him to the rock with mighty chains and nails driven into his hands, and left him to perish in agony. And the hot sun shone down upon the barren cliffs, and there was neither tree nor shrub to shelter him, and the chains entered into his flesh, and his tongue was consumed with thirst. Thus after a while the earth was delivered of Zohak the evil one, and Feridoun reigned in his stead.

حماسه فردوسی شاهنامه
(حماسه شاهان : قصه های قهرمان ایران باستان)

ایجاد شده توسط

حکیم ابوالحسن قاسم فردوسی طوسی
جهانی معروف فارسی (ایرانی) شاعر

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فصل 1
شاهان قدیم
Kaiumers اول بر تاج و تخت ایران نشسته ، و استاد از جهان بود. او در زمان اقامت خود را در کوهها ، و خود و مردم خود را در چادری پوست ببر ، و از او شکلی ناگهانی ظهور تمام مهربانی پرورش و هنر از لباس ها ، تا آن زمان ناشناخته است. مردان و جانوران را از تمام نقاط زمین آمد به او ادای احترام انجام دهید و دریافت قوانین در دست او ، و جلال او بود به مانند خورشید می باشد. سپس اهریمن شیطان ، هنگامی که او را دیدم که چگونه افتخار شاه ، افزایش یافته بود waxed حسود ، و به دنبال غصب نیم تاج از جهان است. بنابراین او بده پسرش ، «دیو» هستند توانا ، دور هم جمع ارتش به بیرون بروید و در برابر Kaiumers Saiamuk پسرش محبوب و نابود کردن آنها را کاملا.
در حال حاضر Serosch ، فرشته که مردان defendeth از snares از Deevs ، و کسی که هر شب flieth هفت بار به دور زمین که او ممکن است تماشای بیش از فرزندان Ormuzd ، زمانی که او این را آموخته ، ظاهر مانند جزء پری و هشدار داد Kaiumers. بنابراین ، هنگامی که Saiamuk چهارم در سر از رزمندگان خود را تنظیم برای دیدار با ارتش از اهریمن ، او می دانست که او در برابر «دیو» هستند متضاد بود ، و او را جلو تمام قدرت خود را. اما «دیو» هستند از او پیروز شد ، و غلبه او ، و او را زیر دست خود را خرد کرد.

وقتی Kaiumers اخبار از عزاداری شنیده می شود ، او متمایل به زمین. برای یک سال که او بدون ceasing بلند تر ، و ارتش خود را با او گریستم ؛ آره ، حتی جانوران وحشی و پرندگان هوا پیوست در ندبه. و غم و اندوه حاکم بود در زمین ، و همه جهان تا Serosch بده شاه بلند سر خود را و فکر می کنم در انتقام تاریک بود. Kaiumers و اطاعت ، و فرمان Husheng ، پسر Saiamuk ، "نگاهی از رهبری ارتش ، و راهپیمایی علیه Deevs." و پادشاه ، به خاطر سن بزرگ او ، رفت عقب. در حال حاضر بودند در Peris میزبان وجود دارد ، همچنین ببر ، شیر ، گرگ ها ، و سایر موجودات درنده ، و هنگامی که «دیو» هستند سیاه و سفید شنیده خروش خود را برای او بسیار ترس لرزید. او نه می تواند خود را نگه دارید در مقابل آنها ، و Husheng او را کاملا شکست خورد. سپس هنگامی که Kaiumers را دیدم که به خوبی مورد علاقه خود را پسر او را پیریزی کرده پایین به مرگ revenged بود ، و جهان را خالی از او بود ، و Husheng حاکم بود در مزرعه بود.

در حال حاضر Husheng مرد عاقل و تنها ، و آسمان ها بر محور بیش از چهل سال تاج و تخت او بود. عدالت که او بیش از زمین پخش می شود ، و جهان بهتر بود برای سلطنت او. او برای نخستین بار برای به آتش مردان داد ، و به آنها نشان داد که چگونه آن را از قرعه کشی از سنگ ، و او آنها را آموخت که چگونه آنها ممکن است به رودخانه ها ، که آنها باید به زمین و آب آن را بارور شود ؛ و او آنها را بده و تا درو. و او تقسیم جانوران و زوج آنها را و به آنها نام. و هنگامی که او به زندگی روشنتر گذشت را ترک کرد جهان را خالی از تاج و تخت از قدرت. اما Tahumers ، پسرش بود ، نالایق از سیره او نیست. او هم باز چشم از مردان ، و آنها را آموخته و چرخش به بافتن ؛ و او بر زمین حاکم بود طولانی و mightily. اما از او نیز بود Deevs حق حسود ، و به دنبال او را از بین ببرد. با این حال Tahumers آنها غلبه و بازیگران آنها را به زمین است. سپس برخی از رحمت craved در دست او ، و sware چگونه آنها او را هنر نشان می دهد اگر او آنها را ، یدکی و Tahumers گوش به صدای خود را. و آنها به او آموخته هنر نوشتن ، و به این ترتیب از شر Deevs آمد بخشش بر مردم.

هر چند که Tahumers بر تاج و تخت طلایی برای فضا از سی سال نشسته بودند که او در گذشت ، اما آثار او را تحمل و Jemshid ، فرزند خود را با شکوه ، که قلبش با counsels از پدرش پر شده است ، پس از او آمدند. در حال حاضر Jemshid حاکم بر سرزمین محاصره کردن هفتصد سال را با قدرت ، و Deevs ، پرندگان ، و او را اطاعت Peris. و جهان بود خوشحال به خاطر او ، و او خیلی خوشحال بود ، و مرگ در میان مردان ناشناخته بود ، نه انجام آنها از درد و غم و اندوه wot. و او برای نخستین بار parceled از مردان به طبقات ، کشیش ، رزمندگان ، artificers ، و husbandmen آنها را او نام. و سال نیز او را به دوره تقسیم شده است. و با کمک از Deevs او مطرح شده با این نسخهها کار بزرگ و تخت جمشید توسط او builded بود ، که تا به امروز نامیده می شود Tukht نامه Jemsheed ، که در حال meaneth تاج و تخت از Jemshid تفسیر شده است. سپس ، هنگامی که این چیز ها انجام شد ، مردان flocked از تمام گوشه و کنار زمین به دور تاج و تخت خود را به او بیعت نمی پور و هدیه قبل از چهره اش. و Jemshid آماده جشن ، حالم بده و آن را نگه داشتن آنها ، و آن را به نام Neurouz ، که روز نو ، و مردم ایران آن را نگه دارید به این ساعت می باشد. و قدرت Jemshid افزایش یافت ، و صلح در جهان بود ، و مردان مشهود در او جز آنچه که خوب بود.

سپس آن آمد که دل Jemshid در غرور uplifted بود ، و او را فراموش کرده چه رو آمد و ثروت خود را منبع برکات او. او فقط خود را بر زمین مشهود ، و او خودش را به نام خدا و فرستاده جلو تصویر او عبادت شود. اما زمانی که او در نتیجه سخن گفته بود ، Mubids ، که astrologers و مردان خردمند ، سر خود را در غم و اندوه را گذاشت ، و هیچ کس می دانست که چگونه باید او را شاه پاسخ دهد. و خداوند دست خود را از Jemshid خارج ، و پادشاهان و اشراف در برابر او گل رز ، و سربازان خود را از دادگاه خود را برداشته ، و اهریمن قدرت بر زمین بود.

در حال حاضر در بیابانهای عربستان به نام پادشاه Mirtas ، سخاوتمندانه و فقط ساکن وجود دارد ، و او تا به حال پسر ، Zohak ، که او دوست داشت. و در مورد آن آمد که اهریمن بازدید کاخ صورت مبدل به عنوان شریف ، و وسوسه Zohak که او باید از راه تقوا حرکت. او آشکارا سخن گفت و نزد او و گفت :

"اگر پژمردگی تو به من گوش بده ، و ورود به پیمان ، من سر تو بالا خورشید می باشد. بالا بردن"
در حال حاضر مرد جوان بی تزویر بود و ساده دل ، و او sware «دیو» هستند که او را به او در همه چیز اطاعت نزد. سپس اهریمن ذبح کردن او بده پدرش ،

"برای این پیر مرد ،"
او گفت ،

"cumbereth زمین ، و در حالی که او liveth پژمردگی تو در دست نیست."
وقتی Zohak شنیده ام این که او با غم و اندوه پر شده بود ، و اگر سوگند خود را شکسته ، اما اهریمن او را رنج می برد ، اما او را به دام برای Mirtas مجموعه. Zohak و اهریمن و شر و صلح خود را برگزار Mirtas افتاد به دام و کشته شد. سپس Zohak Thasis تاج بر سرش قرار داده ، و اهریمن از او آموخته هنر سحر و جادو ، و او بر مردم حکومت خود را در خوب و بد ، برای او هنوز کاملا به خیانت داده می شود.

سپس اهریمن تصور دستگاه را در قلب خود را سیاه و سفید. او بر خودش در زمان شکل جوانان و craved که او ممکن است از کینگ به عنوان آشپز خدمت می کنند. و Zohak ، که او را نشناختند ، او را به خوبی دریافت کرده و درخواست خود را داده ، و از کلید های آشپزخانه نزد او داده شد. در حال حاضر مردان تا کنون با گیاهان پرورانده شده بود ، اما گوشت اهریمن آماده برای Zohak. غذاهای جدید که او پیش از او قرار داده ، و به نفع سلطنتی تا گوشت مورد پسند خود را نسبت بهآنها شد. و گوشت داد شجاعت پادشاه و قدرت مانند تا که از شیر ، و او را فرمان نخواهد داد که آشپز خود را باید قبل از او به ارمغان آورد و از آنها بخواهید یک مزیت به دست خود. و کوک گفت :

"اگر شاه را لذتی است که در بنده اش ، گرانت که او ممکن است شانه های او را بوسید."
Zohak کن ، که می ترسید بدون بد ، اعطا درخواست ، و اهریمن او را در شانه های او را بوسید. و هنگامی که او کار را انجام دادند ، زمین زیر پای خود را باز و تحت پوشش طبخ ، به طوری که حال همه مردان از ان بابت شگفت زده کرد. اما از خود شکلی ناگهانی ظهور صدای خش خش بوسه افعی ، زهردار و سیاه و سفید و شاه نگران بود ، و مورد نظر است که آنها باید باشد را از ریشه بریده. اما اغلب به عنوان مارها پایین قطع شد آیا او به رشد دوباره ، و بیهوده که مردان عاقل و پزشکان در مورد بازیگران برای درمان. سپس اهریمن بار دیگر به عنوان یک انسان آموخته آمد مبدل شد و قبل از Zohak منجر شد ، و او آشکارا سخن گفت ، گفت ،

"این مریض را نمی توان شفا ، نه می شود بی خانمان افعی غذای آماده شدن برای آنها ، در نتیجه ، که ممکن است آنها تغذیه می شود ، و به آنان برای تغذیه مغز از مردان ، برای شاید این ممکن است آنها را از بین ببرد."
اما در قلب خود مخفی اهریمن مورد نظر که جهان در نتیجه ممکن است ساخته شده ویران و روزانه افعی تغذیه شدند ، و ترس از شاه بزرگ در این سرزمین شد. جهان پژمرده در بنده خود ، آداب و رسوم از مردان خوب ، فراموش کرده بودند و خواسته ها از ستمکاران بودند انجام گرفت.

در حال حاضر آن را در خارج از کشور در ایران پخش شد که در سرزمین Thasis حاکم بود یک مرد بود که بزرگ و وحشتناک به دشمنان او وجود دارد. پس از آن پادشاهان و اشراف که از Jemshid از عراق خارج کرده بودند چون او در مقابل خدا شورش کرده بود ، تبدیل به Zohak besought و او را که او خود را حاکم خواهد بود ، و آنها او را شاه اعلام کرد. و ارتش سعودی و ایران راهپیمایی علیه Jemshid ، و او قبل از چهره خود را از آنجا گریخت. برای فضا از سال دو بار در پنجاه و هیچ کس نمی دانست او کجا رفته بود ، برای او از خشم پادشاه مار - پنهان می کردند. اما در fulness از زمان او دیگر نمی تواند فرار از خشم Zohak ، که بندگان او را به عنوان او در دریا ساحل Cathay سرگردان ، و آنها او را در تواین اره ، خبر داده و مژده آن را به پروردگار خود. و در نتیجه جان خود تاج و تخت و قدرت از Jemshid مانند جزء چمن که withereth ، چرا که او افتخار بزرگ شده بود ، و می توانست خود را بالاتر از ساز خود را برداشته.

پس معشوق از اهریمن ، Zohak مار ، شنبه بر تاج و تخت از ایران ، پادشاهی نور است. و او ادامه داد : به شمع بر شر شر تا اندازه گیری آن پر شده به سرشار ، و تمام زمین را علیه او گریه کرد. اما Zohak و از نمایندگان خود ، Deevs ، بسته گوش فرا این فریاد ، و شاه در نتیجه برای فضا از هزار سال فرمانروایی کرد ، و در روز روشن معاون stalked ، اما به موجب پنهان شد. و ناامیدی پر از همه دل ، برای این بود که هر چند مردم هنوز هم باید به اشتها از آن مارها فنر از هلاک ایول ، برای روزانه دو قتل عام مردان برای ارضای تمایل خود را. نه رحمت Zohak بر هر مرد بود. و تاریکی بر زمین به دلیل شرارت خود را گسترش بود.

اما Ormuzd آن را دیدم و با دلسوزی برای مردم خود نقل مکان کرد ، و او اعلام کردند دیگر باید برای گناه Jemshid رنج می برند. و او باعث می شود به نوه Jemshid به دنیا آمد ، و پدر و مادرش او را به نام فریدون.

در حال حاضر آن فرود آمد که زمانی که او در آن متولد شد ، او Zohak خواب بلند و باریک به مانند جوانان سرو مشهود ، و او به سمت او آمد تحمل گرز گاو سر ، و با آن وی زده Zohak به زمین. سپس ستمگر خواب بیدار شد و لرزید ، و خواستار Mubids خود را ، که آنها باید به او تعبیر این رویا. و آنها ، برای آنها مشکل بود گیراندم خطر است ، و او آنها را menaced اگر آنها پیشگویی او بد. و از ترس آنها سکوت سه روز بود ، اما در یک چهارم بود که آشکارا سخن گفت و گفت : شجاعت -

"یکی خواهد شد به نام فریدون ، که باید تاج و تخت تو را به ارث می برند وجود دارد بوجود می آیند و معکوس ثروت تو ، و تو اعتصاب کردن با گرز گاو به عهده دارد."
وقتی Zohak شنیده این کلمات او swooned ، و Mubids فرار قبل از خشم او. اما هنگامی که او تا به حال او بهبود بده جهان برای فریدون scoured شود. و از این پس برای Zohak تلخی از روح مصرف شد ، و او می دانست که نه شادی و نه استراحت.

در حال حاضر آن آمد که مادر فریدون از بیم تا مبادا شاه باید کودک اگر او متوجه شدند که او از نژاد Jemshid فنر بود را از بین ببرد. پس او را در جنگل ضخیم مخفی که در آن ساکن شگرف گاو Purmaieh ، که تار مو کاشت شده بودند مانند جزء plumes از طاووس برای زیبایی. و او دعا نگهبان Purmaieh به مراقبت از پسر او را ، و به مدت سه سال او در چوب پرورش داده بود ، و Purmaieh پرستار او بود. اما هنگامی که زمان مادر انجام شد می دانستم که خبر Purmaieh گوش Zohak رسیده بود ، و او می ترسید او را پسر خود را پیدا کنید. بنابراین او را به آنجا انتخاب انجام گرفت ، به منزوی وارسته که ساکن در Alberz کوه. و او دعا منزوی برای محافظت از پسر او ، که برای کارهای بزرگ به مقصد بود. و زاهد گوشه نشین اعطا درخواست او. و آن فرود آمد در حالی که با او sojourned Zohak Purmaieh قشنگ رو پیدا کرده و آموخته از فریدون ، و زمانی که او شنیده ام که او مانند پسر جزء بود فیل دیوانه در خشم خود فرار کرده بود. او کشت و شگرف گاو و تمام موجودات زنده در مورد دور ، ساخته شده و جنگل صحرا. سپس او ادامه داد : جستجو کند ، اما نه خبر ده و نه چشم می تواند او از فریدون کنید ، و قلب خود را با غم و اندوه پر شده بود.

در این سال Zohak ناشی از ارتش خود را به تقویت شود ، و او از قوم خود خواستار آن شدند که آنها باید گواهی او که تا کنون به آنها شده است پادشاه عادل و شریف. و آنها از ترس بسیار اطاعت. اما در حالی که آنها به وجود آمد بدون sware راهرو از شاه فریاد کسی است که خواستار عدالت وجود دارد. و Zohak فرمان نخواهد داد که او باید در آورده ، و آن مرد ایستاده بود قبل از مجمع از اشراف.

سپس Zohak دهان باز کرد و گفت :

"من تو را به اتهام جزء نام او که خداوند تو را اشتباه انجام بدهید"
و مرد ، زمانی که او را دیدم آن شاه بود که او را مورد پرسش ، smote سر خود را با دست خود. اما او پاسخ داد و گفت :

"من Kawah ، آهنگر و مرد بی گناه ، و من برای عدالت شکایت دارند و آن را در برابر تو ، ای پادشاه ، که من فریاد است. هفده پسر عادلانه مال من ، با این حال تنها یک ماند به من نامیده می شود ، برای آن خود را برادران به هنوز گرسنگی افعی تو کشته شد ، و در حال حاضر آنها از من این کودک همچنین آخرین گرفته شده است. من تو را دعا یدکی من نزد او ، و نه پر کردن ظلم و ستم تو بر زمین تحمل گذشته است. "
شاه می ترسید و خشم Kawah است ، beholding که آن بزرگ بود ، و او اعطا شده او را از زندگی پسرش و به دنبال او با کلمات نرم برنده شوید. و بعد او را دعا کرد که او نیز نشانه شهادت Zohak که پادشاه عادل و بزرگوار بود. اما Kawah گریه ،

"اما نه ، تو ستمکار و فرومایه مرد ، متحد Deevs ، من نمی خواهد به من قرض بدهید جزء دست من این دروغ ،"
و او ضبط اعلام و آن را به تکه های گچ

The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi امتیاز : 423 دیدگاه(0)

تاریخ: 31/01/1390 ساعت: عدم نمايش بازدید: 129 نویسنده: طاها

The Shahnameh or The Epic of Kings is one of the definite classics of the world. It tells hero tales of ancient Persia. The contents and the poet's style in describing the events takes the reader back to the ancient times and makes he/she sense and feel the events. Ferdowsi worked for thirty years to finish this masterpiece.
An important feature of this work is that during the period that Arabic language was known as the main language of science and literature, Ferdowsi used only Persian in his masterpiece. As Ferdowsi himself says "Persian language is revived by this work".

This is the translation of The Epic of Shahnameh Ferdowsi by Helen Zimmern

شاهنامه یا حماسه شاهان یکی از آثار کلاسیک قطعی از جهان است. قهرمان داستان می گوید از ایران باستان. مطالب و سبک این شاعر در توصیف وقایع طول می کشد که خواننده را به دوران باستان می سازد و او حس و احساس وقایع. فردوسی مشغول به کار سی سال را به پایان برساند این شاهکار.
ویژگی مهم این اثر است که در طول دوره است که زبان عربی به عنوان زبان اصلی از علم و ادب شناخته شده بود ، فردوسی فقط فارسی در شاهکار خود استفاده می شود. همانطور که فردوسی خود می گوید : "زبان فارسی است این کار را زنده کرد".

این ترجمه از حماسه های شاهنامه فردوسی است هلن Zimmern

The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi The-Epic-of-Shahnameh-Ferdowsi امتیاز : 395 دیدگاه(0)

تاریخ: 31/01/1390 ساعت: عدم نمايش بازدید: 91 نویسنده: طاها

عکس هایی از تخت جمشید (پارسه) و نقش و نگار های زیبا و ظریف آن ،

عکس : خسرو

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عکس-تخت-جمشید-(پارسه)- عکس-تخت-جمشید-(پارسه)- عکس-تخت-جمشید-(پارسه)- عکس-تخت-جمشید-(پارسه)- عکس-تخت-جمشید-(پارسه)- امتیاز : 389 دیدگاه(0)

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